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Jan 28 2014.doc

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Political Science
Nelson Wiseman

Jan 28 2014 JPA 331 China’s Environmental Problems and Climate Change Challenges -Resources powers economic growth in countries Environmental Costs of Econ. Development • Air pollution • Largely due to coal mining. Pollution stems from China’s reliance on coal to supply its huge energy needs. • Lung diseases very prevalent in China, lots of Cancer villages out there due to air and water pollution. • Regardless there have been some improvement in air poll. in the southern cities, due to reduction of household coal (majority of households now use gas) • Water is a major issue in China, especially the North • An economist would say that an important component to this water issue is the price • 28% percent of its rivers are too toxic for regular use. Water pollution is definitely a big issue • There have been talks about devising a Green GDP to measure a country with • Political costs as a result of environment: This has become a big source of discontent Broader Debates on Econ Growth & the Environment • Economic development leads to more waste and pollution • Economic Development can also improve environmental protection, as people get rich their attitudes towards nature and their values to environment may change • As society progresses it will progress in terms of technology which may help protect environment, therefore improved state capacity to protect environment • In theory, relationship between econ development and environment is not a straight line relationship. • Theory: Environmental Kuznets’ Curve Environmental Protection Bureaucracies • Major obstacles in solving environmental issues in terms of its domestic policies: Tiao-Kuai Relationship: any local agency has 2 masters, when the orders are different, they are torn in between, and it comes down to who has the power and controls your resources. - Horizontal: the party committee -One main reason why environmental conflicts occur -State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) 1998 very little administrative power. In 2008, SEPA elevated to ministry level with establishment of ministry of environmental protection they are to enforce laws, and draft regulations. -Environmental protection Bureau (local, county and township levels) - The problem is the implementation of these laws, ex. At the ministry level, if there was a pollutant in this sector, there would be a conflict between provincial govt vs. the ministry (both are just as powerful) - Ministry of Environment (MEP) -each local level there is Environmental Protection Bureaucracy (EPB) -There is also the Kuai system (horizontal) -Central govt is aware of this problem, some changes in 90’s made, which made vertical accountability more powerful than horizontal powers - The elevation to ministry status was not accompanied by increased funding, personnel have been cut instead. The local environmental bureaus are still largely dependent on government for funding. The most common source of funds has been the collection of funds from institutions which have gone over the standard pollution regulations - There is an incentive for collecting these fees. - Cadre eva
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