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Lecture 2

POL215Y1 Lecture 2: Asia before colonial times
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Department
Political Science
Course
POL215Y1
Professor
Vic Falkenheim
Semester
Fall

Description
POL215 – Lecture 2 • Nationalism and communism came and blended together • Asia before colonial times • Thriving empires : China had various dynasties, but the boarders of the empires were quite fluid • It was a region where you had a lot of thriving empires • China, which of course at some point was stretching to Vietnam and the boarders were very different • Thriving empires were govern very locally • Ruler over people, not rule over land or territory • Dynamic societies : Asian societies were not static • As early as 200 B.C, we had Hinduism travelling through other countries • Many influences from Hinduism, you’d have Buddhism which enter from India, into parts of China and parts of Southeast Asia • Pattern of spread of religion and political change was fluid and not systematically a large army transforming, but came slowly and gradually • Advanced technology : architecture and engineering was important • Bureaucratic structures were quite advanced, and looked modern through their capacity into make a royal emperor into an empire • The region was also very global, a lot of trade • Global relations (e.g., silk, route): A lot of trade th th • There was a lot of trade occurring even in the 11 – 12 century • Vibrate region was a variety of sizes which a political and economic structures in place where some regions have various kinds of technology • From pre-colonial to colonial, what we call China had nothing to do with what we see today [same for Japan etc…] • Whatever location were the same, but the political configuration was different, and the impact on population • It was a region where you had different kinds of political region • The modern state is a very strong institution and it defines the word today. Everyone is living in a modern state • Colonial patterns and transformation • Early in global markets: It forced an entry into the market, this was a intensification into the stretch of the global market [e.g., production of spices were very important, and once they discover them, they became a huge attraction for colonial adventures who wanted to profit from the spices] • Later on, sugar became attracted to Europeans • Opium became a huge trade the British was quite fond of developing • This would mean new technologies and new ways of producing in a larger scale and accelerating the amount that would be enough • New economic structures: new model of production that would have an impact on political structures on the lives it was created • Cultivation system [Dutch], they used local producers already in place and required quotas of productions of a certain commodities • Here you did not have a change in land holding patterns, they used current land holding patterns • Plantations create larger states • You have large landowner and replace them with one large landowner and many people working on the land • Colonialism started mostly around private adventurers or business people • For the most part, they were interested in profit and business, therefore they went where they could seize control of some existing commodities • Only later would there be this push to produce more intestfully certain commodities th • New political structures: 19 century = century of empire • Where European powers intensifying to control politically, that’s when states become more involve • Direct rule in some places, direct rule • Other places, indirect rule = uses political structure in place, they would use these kings as long as they serve political interests • Video clip #1 • Importance of overland trade routes, not the sea • European pattern of colonial penetration • Still limited knowledge of each other’s cultures but doesn’t mean there weren’t fair amount of contact in some areas • The Portuguese are the first who came to the region and they arrived to enhance commercial pattern • The spread of Christianity was the expanding Portuguese had • Most traders who were present in the Mari-time routes were Muslims who had a similar kind of political goal • The Portuguese established there strongest base in Malakai and were trying to displace some of the important trade routes that were in the areas of the region where there were spices • When the Dutch came , a 100 years after the Portuguese, were welcomed in large parts because they were happy to come replace the Portuguese • The Dutch-East India company, was a commercial, they were interested in species, and they came ready to displace the Portuguese and intensify trade in the areas where you have spices th • They were interested in monopolizing the control on these routes, and 17 century, they took over Malakai and took over Portuguese in these routes th • 17 century influence would remain • The Dutch extended their influence but immediately a competitor with the British • The Dutch developed the model of the cultivation system which they require peasants to produce a certain amount, and these quotas were given to the Dutch • Plantation economy was not a strong sort of interest the Dutch had when it came to their means of production • So later on, the Dutch were interested in the Spice Islands, Java etc… • However, once the British came, it became more important for the Dutch to control land and became much more involved • There’s a very uneven pattern of colonial penetration of the region where the Dutch could rule • They also expanded the production of certain committees through plantations • Tin mining and rubber were also significant • The
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