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Lecture 4

POL215Y1 Lecture 4: Vietnam

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Vic Falkenheim

POL215 – Lecture 4 • Ideological movement around idea of communism that has transformative affects in the region • Combined with the cold war politics that institutionalized • China was the first country where you see a significant communist movement which in this case became the basic of common regime in China • Mao Zedong in the practice of mobilizing a communist movement incidentally as well modified the big strategies [revolution through arm struggle] Vietnam • Ho Chi Minh • Part of the French colonial territorial of China • Origins of Indochinese Communist Party • Relation to French colonial rule • Post-world war II and return of the French • Division of Vietnam • In 1920 this was an international movement, sense of internationalism in communist movement • Nationalist leaders were indicated under colonial regimes • Japanese occupied Vietnam, as result many disruption • 1945: large famine in the South, helped Viet communist to mobilized to feed the population • 1945: Japanese surrendered , Vietminh organized members, gained population in the North, occupied large portion of territory • They controlled only the south • He had allowed the French to enter in the north in order to counter the Chinese troops • French promise they would hold a general election, and a preparation for independence in Vietnam, but they regain control Vietnam • The communists organized very effectively in the north, organized war committees and had military supplies • 1954: French were defeated by north Vietnamese forces thus they gave up and decided to leave Vietnam • In the south, a government that has not been elected, there was a bit of a void in the south with a regime that seemed fragile, not a lot of domestic regime • Vietnam becomes the one of the most important frontiers of the cold war • There was then an escalation in 1950 • Americans at war with Vietnam, and ended by exhaustion because they were losing at the hands of unknown resistant fighters in the country side, a strategy Vietnamese use effectively • Had people hiding among civilians, which makes it difficult for Americans to know where their enemies were • Fair amount of support in the rule area in the south of Vietnam • Records of Americans in Vietnam was dreadful • Conflicted large amount of damage in Vietnam, and became unpopular • At some level, the Vietnamese in the north were able to cast the idea of what they were doing as communist, and as a war of liberation • Vietnam War o Socialist republic of Vietnam (1975) ▪ Nationalist of Communist? Indonesia • Rise of the Communist party (1920s) o Coming out of a Islamic association was irony o Failed because not much knew about communism o Not much logic of mobilization • Link to nationalism o Islamic association was the beginning of the struggling against the Dutch in colonial rulers o Might be a rebellion that is creating a struggle that is setting away from the Dutch • Collapse of the Movement (1940s) o Organize another movement in 1948 o Return of the Dutch after the second world war o Chaotic period in the Dutch east Indies o Nationalist declared republic in 1945 o Attempt communist itself organize rebellion gets crushed by the Dutch • Revival of the Communist party (1960s) • Elimination of the communist party of Indonesia 1965-1966 o Armed forces re-established power o Mass killings across Indonesia • 3 divisions for Indonesia: nationalism, Islamic, communist o Communist organized and became significant in the 1960s when the retrieved the democratic rule o By 1960s, they were the only party in Indonesia that was organized • U.S worried that Indonesia was also going to be that tipping point • So they came in and exile many of the communist that were involved • Other Cases o Successful: ▪ North Korea ▪ Cambodia ▪ Laos • The end of the Vietnam war that allowed the Vietnamese communist to support communist takeover Cambodia and Laos o Unsuccessful: ▪ Malaysia • Early communist movement • Much of the support came from the Chinese • Enthusiastic about these communist organizations that were being formed • British crushed Malaysian communist party so it didn’t go very far • Never taken to the ideology ▪ Philippines • Rose and continues one way or another until today, but never managed to get sufficient allies • 1970s, the Americans were present in the Philippines • Made them capable of defeating the communist • Americans finding ways supporting regimes to crush the communists • Conclusion o Communism was strong ideology with important effects on politics in Asia o China and revolution of 1949 was key influence o Communist movements mirrored nationalism o Successes occurred in locations of crisis and strong peasant mobilization o Most of Asia caught in Cold war politics Cambodia • Took communist ideology in a completely new direction • Its authoritarian, difficult to compare to other regimes • 1979 afterwards, there is a much clear communist regime in power or more standard • It
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