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Lecture 10

POL215Y1 Lecture 10: Comparisons and Political Analysis

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Political Science
Vic Falkenheim

POL215 – Nov 25 Lecture • Midterm Format: short identification section: concepts, names of leaders that have been prominent in countries, names of events, choose 4 out of 8 [20%) • Two essays: 2 out of 4 to choose (80%) • Come to class at 10A.M Comparisons and Political Analysis • What explains the kinds of regimes we see in SE Asia? • Democratic regimes o Trying to think about not only change but continuity o Seen that some places have subtle changes o And those whose regime changes frequently, and why we see them change frequently o It’s a broad framework under which politics can occur and how roots mobilized, groups organized and how groups are able to channel their interest into the political system o In a democratic political regime: ability to access through political parties, lobbing in political pressure, doing institutionally o Outside, there are groups to organize and voice their opinions in the media o That is why a democratic regime allows a fair amount of political space for groups, individuals, organizations to operate, participate in politics generally o A system that closes opportunities for representation and participation, so even if you have the institution in place, you have an executive that takes an overwhelming place in the state, therefore, parliaments are not locus of representation but trying to legitimize the system o We may have the representative but they are not elected • The main difference between where we draw the line is electoral democracy • The condition for elections to be free and fair means you have as well some additional requirements to meet that kind of regime of democratic • You have to be able to organize parties and interest groups • Be able to have a free media otherwise cannot promote ideas in a campaign o Electoral democracy comes with a certain amount of freedom that comes with a more open political space o In some ways that benchmark a rule that if there’s an opportunity for opposition to gain power, that’s a good sign democracy is functioning in a way that there is accountability and regular change in government • Free and fair elections – democratic regime • Democratic quality – least well equip to identify quality of democracy • We have to have a minimum language standard sort of regimes • There is assumption that rule is for the people, and choosing representatives • Authoritarian regimes o A group that seize power in one way or another and ruling for the benefit of the group, not accountability for all of the population ▪ Accountability is access through elections • There is a range of authoritarian regimes • Some are claiming rule in a way of communist ideology • We also saw there are authoritarian regimes that run regular elections and they appear fair but they are not • One can make a claim that in Singapore or Malaysia, elections are not very rigged • However, there is in Singapore a track records of leaders in opposition party, and reorganization that the people party is highly dominant • Regime is propping up charges with judiciary that follows these regimes, then you have chances that is not a free and fair association, but an association of opposition leaders and coalition of polls • Combines with censor press and limitations in organization in Malaysia, we have a regime that is not in the authoritarian side • Regimes in the Region • Three cases: one of which in the last year was suspended [Thailand] • We can look at Thailand from 1988 and today, a long period with many interruptions of democratic rule but those interruptions are increasingly significant • Thailand was a well-functioning electoral democracy from 1992-2006, however, doubts after 2006 • Indonesia and Philippines had a well-functioning electoral democracy • Restrictions in Malaysia, Cambodia in ways or re-organizing their electoral system thus they are authoritarian but not communist • What we found • Politics in SEA is quite diverse • This diversity is based on history, as well as broad structural changes • The transformation of the region has mixed results • There are some unique events that has set the path in some of these countries in different ways o Indonesia, 1965-66, one ways of radically eliminating an opposition force to become this party of Indonesia o Khmer Rouge in Cambodia caused so much destruction that it interruption the path of Cambodia • The Analytical Path • History o Who were colonial regions and how were they affecting regimes at the time of independence o Countries created new states that it would have existed before o Boundaries or new states were sometimes products of colonial history o We also saw in the region that the way in which some European colonizer rule o Philippines, at the time of American institution ▪ The American constitution of balancing power transposed in a bicameral system had an interesting consequences that you don’t see in parts of the region ▪ House of representative could be captured by large families, capture the institutions and establish a political clan ▪ Having a region base, district base system, organize in the house of senate was an important inheritance in American colonial experience ▪ Spanish created socio-economic base a model of representation that Philippines created for family that hold large lands at the time, was those family in the position continue emerging industrial manufacturing opportunities ▪ One way to think about the country is economic base inherited by Spanish and American institution set their democracy with a burden they have today, that institution is captured by powerful organizations o Malaysia example of how colonial practices is bringing in labors from C
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