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Lecture 3

POL215Y1 Lecture 3: Right of Rebellion

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Political Science
Vic Falkenheim

POL215 – Jan 20 Week 3 Lecture • Son of China, govern by Mandate of Heaven [Tian Ming] o Ruled by example • Right of Rebellion o People have the right to propose a sovereignty o Democratic notion of legitimation • Islam is possible able to point to democratic thought than centralizing strength • Chinese dynasty rose and fell [modern dynastic cycle] o Understanding that overtime governments became more corrupt • First to develop marriage bureaucracy o Relied on services of Confucius trained, core of civil service o Corrupted overtime in principle • China was seem as a model during the renaissance o Civil service recruited on their talent o China had a private property, high level of literacy, and absence of status o It was an achievement oriented society o “with education, there is no class” – Confucius o Commoners could become the emperor o Featured of Chinese tradition that allow strong democratic cultural potential for democratic values o It was a functioning meritocracy ▪ Government were managed by boards, staffed by civil service who gain through examination system ▪ It became corrupt • Paradox that Chinese was most advance pre-modern system in history o Collapse while Japan was an isolated society with strong military condition responded more effectively • Chinese were better in natural resources • European created the nation state but eliminated economic and political life as response to feudalism • China alone brought to the modern world o Personal freedom, private property • Scholars focus on the inhibiting nature of Confucian ideology and values • Blamed the Manchus for Chinese fall o If the ruling house was Chinese, it wouldn’t fall • Chinese throne doesn’t buy into reform until 1900s when China was defeated by Japanese • In 1900 a program of comprehensive modernization o Eliminated civil service exam o Studied Japanese case in detail o Liked how Japanese handle the constitutional issue o Early 1900s, introduced elections, constitutionalism [50 years after Japanese] ▪ Started the “Meiji restoration” but too late ▪ Bad luck o Manchu dynasty most capable leader were in power, wouldn’t have been a defensive response rejecting the west o Would’ve found out secret of Western success like the Japanese • It was a measure of China’s decline • Revolution in 1911 o Introduced democratic [promulgated constitution] o 1912, first national elections o Vibrant society with mass media o Growth of public opinion o Sun Yet Son political party ▪ Nationalists party ▪ Competed and won most seats ▪ Root of the democratic development • Male over 21 own property, paid taxes who voted • Family royalty dominated voting but election was a surprising success • First elections of government in China • 1918, minimal democracy [France, Britain etc.] o But China’s democracy failed by violence and warlordism • What happened in case of China? o President felt constrained by legislature dominated by opposition party o So he shut down parliament o Ushered in a short term military rule • Reinstitution of monarchy o Sheik Kai announced himself emperor o Led to protest nationally and died • Period of warlords [1916-1928 or late 1927] o During the period, foreign influence of China penetrates even further in China o There was always a national government in Beijing ▪ Controlled by whatever warlord was dominated ▪ Warlords never lost sovereignty o Their control extended beyond Beijing later on o China was competing over ideology o Period there is a significant expansion of public debate over value culture ideology th • May 4 movement o May 4 1919, China was represented in conference ▪ China would return in Chinese sovereignty o Shandong was promised to Japanese o By warlord government prepared to sign off o Popular activism, student protest in Beijing, spread all around the country o 1919, starting point for too modern politics o Kai Sheik, lost the war, moved to Taiwan • 1911 “Republic of China” • 1911 is the critical mark, emergence of democratic institution • Chinese communist had emergence of Marxism of competing ideology o Revolutionary politics • Did not make any social changes o Did not change social economic distribution of power o Had no fundamental, social or economic changes o Imperialist institutions collapsed • Why democracy failed? o China is best explained as a case similar to SK, Brazil • Why did the communist and nationalist come in o 1911, dynasty collapses, , dynasty in 1912 o Warlordnism in 1916-1928 • Nationalists party goes underground [Sun Yet Son] • Struggled between rival groups and social revolution • Accidental that the Chinese communist party won in 1949 • Few background facts of communist party o Founded in 1921, emerging of sponsorship of Soviet Union o
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