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Lecture 4

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Political Science
Jacques Bertrand

Oct 4, 2012 LECTURE 4 Colonialism and Nationalism (Part 2) Forms of Nationalism in Asia - Expansionist/Militarist (Japan) - National Liberation (China)  Nationalism had a liberating kind of connotation to it, in the case of China dynastic system, colonial rule  Regaining territory and autonomy - “Nation-building” (Indonesia)  Created the new people of Indonesians  Redefine the state for Indonesians - Nationalist, Exclusivist (Malaysia) Japan - Move to isolation under Tokugawa sultanate - Adaptation to compete with Europeans  Europeans forced the Japanese to open the door for trade  Expand trading and commercial interest in the Japanese region  Act to defense increasing intrusions of Europe and the US - 1853: Europeans able to open Japan  Open up the barriers - Aggressive expansionism and militarism as response  Lower level of the shogunate and frustrated the stagnation of the regime  Anti-shogunal movement  1868: Meiji restoration (abolition of the shogunate system that was in place before, and the restoration of the power of the Emperor)  Nationalism was a movement for (recreate the past)  Anti-colonialist (look to the future)  Restoration was a movement forward (underlying idea is that the Japanese are reinventing themselves as modern people with the idea of modern citizenship) - First Asian nationalism - Christians were regarded subversive - Japanese centralized the Japanese state due to the shogunate - First to adapt the aggressive expansionism, not China - Meiji restoration: first step in modernizing and transforming the Japanese state. Reaction to the intrusion by American, Russian powers in the region forcing Japan to open up trade - The system of shogunate has reached its limit in rejecting the European powers - It was the bureaucracy and military that had modern technology that built up the region power (new form of state and nation) Oct 4, 2012 - Happened in 1868 onwards - Heyday of colonialism (the Meiji restoration) - New regime that transformed Japan into a new political system, also wants to assert power in the industrial system - Japan had a lot of bureaucratic educational resources to use to transform of industrial purposes (same thing happened in Siam, except the military transformation wasn’t that extensive) Why expansionist? (Japan) - Conscious of equality with Western powers  Nationalism = everyone is equal, and they are not above others  Reassertion in the ability to say there is no such ranking  By 1905, the Japanese engaged in a war with Russia, and the former won  The victory of the war made a statement that the Asian people were just as capable in competing in the world as the Europeans th - Competition in late 19 century meant empire  Already in place, we see the ideology of this regime (idea of empire and expansion)  There are some different ideas of how to promote a state expansion and its capacity and the industrial transformation at this period of time (we have the strong economic development, Prussians very different from the British. Rise of the ideology of militarism. Fascism grew in Europe, an idea of alternative, which was the idea that a strong military state could effectively transform society towards something different. In this case, it means the transformation of industrialization) - Meiji restoration did not establish a liberal democratic base - Economic instability and poverty fueled expansionism  Japanese was very poor  Expansionism would create the effect of extract resources (create more prosperity for Japanese)  Korea was the first in 1910 (expansionism)  Manchuria in China  1931: war between Japan and China  Used the Chinese Emperor as the puppet China - Chinese society stable for 2000 years (physical and political strategies) - Qing dynasty suffered from internal decay and strong state/bureaucracy - The huge population came the needs to produce food (eroding the regime, because it proved incapable of stimulating this kind of needs) - Rising problems of  Rebellion  Opium and European pressure - 1640: Manchuria replaced the emperor in China (Qing dynasty) Oct 4, 2012 - Europeans dominated China between 1800 and 1950 - Last emperor in 1911 Why national liberation? (China) - Reaction to Western powers  Sense of defensive reaction  National liberation in the sense of a movement that primarily aimed at bringing down the Qing dynasty (in 1911) and transformed to a new society  Intrusion to Western powers with the opium war - Weakness and stagnation of Qing dynasty  Incapacity to address food crisis, and the need to reform agriculture  Lost to Japan in 1894 and 1895  Not capable of resisting other Asian powers  The rise of nationalist movement: rebellion, and the attempt to replace the Emperor, bring down the regime  Sun Yat Sen: most significant figure in nationalist movement  Brought forward to the idea of the need of modern China  Started as the intellectual movement  Sense of reinventing the Chinese people as a Chinese nation  Lack of capacity (military power did not reside with the nationalist) - Spread of ideas of reform: defensive modernism  Break the idea of dynasty  Chinese as modern people  Emergence of the communist party (modernist and nationalist power) Indonesia - Subjects of the Dutch in colonial power - Rise of consciousness (people belong together) - Inability to channel rebellion at first - The administrators used Indonesians in the colonial bureaucracy - Colonialism: intensification in the late 19 century (more Indonesians participated in the colonial effort) - Benedict Anderson: Spread of technology and communication (Malay) used already among different people. The Dutch took Malay and expanded the use of Dutch to fill in the colonial service (Dutch was used as a communication) spread of a shared identity around a language of commerce, shared to the consciousness - Continuous wall (although Indonesians speak Dutch, they will never consider themselves as Dutch but Indonesians) kept the barriers very clear
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