• Singapore is an example of a prosperous state deeply engaged in
• Understanding of democracy is consequentialist. Looking at policy output.
The Regime is responsive to citizens but not participatory.
• Raises questions about stability and persistence of authoritarianism.
• Current writing on the subject of authoritarianism:
o Soviet specialist (paradoxes of the new authoritarianism)
(Lipset)Why are authoritarian regimes surviving In the age of
democratization? Why has political science underestimate the
o Answer to first question: Liberalized authoritarian is not a stable
equilibrium. Performance is the only way that authoritarian regimes
succeed. They must deliver.
Argument #1 that would destabilize authoritarianism
• Modernization theory argues that as income rise, middle class emerges,
Values Change. Democratic friendly ways rise. As a result. the authoritarian
• Adjusting policies that are responsive is what authoritarian regimes should
• Regimes like Singapore that has adopted democratic reforms still has a
perpetual hold on power (by rigging the field in elections)
21 century methods of enduring the democratic threat are vital in understanding
the survival of authoritarian regimes.
• NathanNew way of looking at the Chinese Regime is the mixture between
stateism and etc…look at readings
• Authoritarian regimes live under the shadow democratic institutions.
• Suggests that China exemplifies a new distinctive sub-variant, stable,
o Popular support
o Coercive powers of the state
o Repressive powers of the state
• It may be more fruitful to ask if China would change to be more effective and
more universal for democracy
• The China case contradicts the belief that democracy is the only method in
having effective polic responsive reaction to citizens’ demand.
• We are all modernization theorists.
• A question of when and how China would democratize
Do you think it would be better to ask if China transition to democracy, or is it better
for the Chinese to adapt to the demands of citizens? (different form of democracy)
• Citizen control • Could China move to institutions where there is a lot of public consultation?
Could you develop infrastructures in which it can respond to citizens?
Positive and negative images of China
• Self confident China (Italian suits, starbucks etc…) lifting everyone out of
poverty, emergence of a powerful actor in modern state. As popular as Japan,
Germany etc…vs. Brutal image of China…Brutalizing citizens, take political
prisoners, not self tolerant,
o Scholars are juxtaposing these two ideas.
o Studying China as opposed to concurrent trends.
• Renovation, reinvention, disintegration…Chinese Communist Party
adaptation. Twin processes: on one hand, dysfunctions of China and at the
same time, adapting in effective ways.
• You wind up with a clichéd characterization of China as beset by
o E.g. The elephant storydepends on interpretation. China is very
• Fivebooks.com website for books.
• Min-Chee Pay
o Can China survive an entrepreneur revolution?
• Yang, Dali
o Confucius democracy
• As a system that is evolving in ways that are accommodating society, we
tend to use loaded language to describe this change.
o In fact, Communist party is celebrated by the rich businessmen in
China. It is a smart adaptive regime.
• Party membership is now valued in ChinaBetter job opportunitiesbetter
connectedWanting to be ambitious (Joining Communist Party)
o If people disdains the regime, then they would say it’s in trouble.