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Lecture 3

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Political Science
Jacques Bertrand

POL215 East Asian politics Prof.? Sept.27, 2012 Asia before colonial times - Thriving empires - Philippines was smaller kingdoms - Asian societies were dynamic societies o China was a somewhat stable empire, but there was a lot of changing of boundaries, competition  South east Asia was even more shifting, the boundaries weren’t even clear  Cultural influences flowed across the region o Introduction of large religions influencing large regions, through merchants and other groups  Hinduism in Bialy (?) is thriving  Political instability and cultural influences Advanced technology - Invention of gun powder in china - Very advanced in Technology, the engineering was very sophisticated - Famous beautocrat structure o Idea that functioning beaurocracy should be based on meritocratic skills Global relations - Sometimes the religions were brought in through merchants, sometimes conquest but not really Colonial patterns and transformation - Entry in global markets o Already existed and there was trade of goods  But there were entrance into markets Europeans were interested in  Having control of the spice trade for European consumption  Sugar plantations were also established by Europeans  Opium was significant for Europeans, seized control, and had huge influences of spread of opium through china which had a lot to do with the decay of the people - New economic structures o When they first came was trading companies o Then seize control o Then intensify trade through production  Transformation of many areas to create plantations for things such as sugar, tin, rubber o Transformation of cultivation systems  There was a quota system where they could keep left over o Philippines had establishment of ownership of large areas of land o This is a colonial pattern you see mainly in Latin America  Loss of family ownership - New political structures o Mattered if colonial power used direct of indirect rule  Direct rule is by removing local structures, and replaced by colonial administration  Usually locals with Europeans somewhere up in the ladder  Indirect where colonial administrators used the ruling structures were still there, just made sure the local rulers worked for them  Made it look like that there was a layer of legitimacy rather then direct rule but there was still a lot of manipulation o This would show during independence of the countries whether they were included in the independence or not - 80% of population lived on land, costal zones were not important and that’s where Europeans conquered - Importance of overland trade routes, not sea - European pattern of colonial penetration - Still limited knowledge of each others’ cultures - First European power were the Portuguese o They tried to prevent expansion of Islam, late encounter of them in the holy land, also wanted to have control over the spice route  Had double aim, but trade was still most important  Would create conflicts with local and Portuguese  Melaka was the base of the Portuguese trading network, with them came missionaries  Until 1974 there was still Portuguese influence (check where) - The Dutch came in the late 16 century o They were not a zealous in their religious component o Were much more interested in trade o A lot of local populations were in conflicts with Portuguese so the locals welcomed this other European power and alliances were made  This was a trading venture, Dutch trading company o Began to replace Portuguese o At this point they were the dominant power o In a later period were In Molucca, which was a important place for production of spices, also in Java, there was a lot of in direct rule  This was here where the cultivation system was established - The late 19 century is when the Dutch gov’t would be interested in established authority o Different intensity of control, in direct rule was their favorite method  Religion brought Calvinism and protestant but only in small pockets  Why did religion have importance? Soldiers and trust for workers - The British were less interested in south east Asia o They cared more for India o In the late 18 century they began to challenge Dutch dominance o They did temporarily seiz
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