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Lecture 6

POL224 Lecture 6 October 15th .rtf

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Political Science
Rodney Haddow

POL220 October 15th 2013 Have Democracies Changed? continued from previous lecture • modern era meant security and economic values • left: economic equality: positive rights • right: economic freedom: negative rights • see inglehart: 1970s affluence yields 'post-materialism' • focus shifts to personal well being • implications for politics? • institutions less legitimate: authority challenged • down: leaders, deference. up: activism, life style • less voting, lobbying, more NSM led protests, boycotts etc. • all of this contributes to the rise of identity politics • new social movements are about identity • when we think about identity politics, we usually associate the concept with non or new post material concepts • so, new ideologies emerged such as feminism, environmentalism • but also evokes 'neo-conservative' backlash • in this era of post materialism, it has given a rise to a challenge of politics that focuses on identities and concepts which oppose these things as well • the emergence of challenges against the mainstream provokes a backlash, always on the terrain of post-materialism • Nevitt: left-right spectrum now divides identity pluralism from traditional values • on the one hand we have people who are favourable disposed to identity pluralism on the left side, on the other hand there is apolitical right that celebrates traditional values • superimposed on (not replacing) material divide • conflict on economy (material/modern) now mixes with conflict on civil society (post- material) • richer countries re more post-material • but notice North America/Europe difference • now another layer of left-right conflict that has to do with civil society in current society (is it ok to celebrate diversity or should we preserve traditionalism) • richer a country becomes, the more focus on economic aspect like right, than the civil society aspect like left • as you get richer,you should move more from the material to the post-material Canadian Political Culture ▪ do canadians think politically alike? key question is not democracy, do canadians think politically like americans? ▪ canadians obsessed by the idea that we are or are not like americans in politics ▪ historical qualitative views: also surety/quantitative evidence Ideologies in developed democracies • key ideologies part of the political culture of both countries Canada and US • liberalism: ideology of European differentiation • individuals should have equal opportunity to pursue their interests, using reason • championing the ira that the state should not involve itself in the economy and civil society, leave people to gain economically however they want without hurting someone else • liberalism emerged from hobbes, locke, stewart mill • conservatism emerged in opposition to liberalism across Europe in the wake of the mergence of capitalism and modern civil society • steered by hierarchies to protect tradition • we can't solve our problems using reason, the institutions that exist in society are extremely complex, they were formed through thousands of decisions, reshaping them gradually over time, this process is in effect the embodiment of the collective wisdom of all society/family/church • we should respect those traditions • and socialists also champion community (workers) who use reason for equality of condition • liberalism: individual, equality, passion (individual) • conservative: community, hierarchy, tradition • socialism: community, equality, reason (state, collective) • categories (, equality/hierarchy, reason/tradition) Hartz's Fragment Thesis & Canada ▪ Hartz" 'New Societies' get part of p.c of 'mother country', that of settlers ▪ new societies get part of the original political culture of the settlers of the original society ▪ new settlers bring in atypical ideas with them, end up with a culture that is only a fragment of the original culture ▪ US: established by Puritans- all equal and alone before God, so liberal because they had a religious foundation that was liberalist ▪ Canada: Quebec was Catholic, hierarchical community of faith; so conservative ▪ english canada was liberal, established initially by Americans, focused on the individual achievement using the reason of equa
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