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POL242Y1
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Anthony Sealey
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Lecture

# Lecture#5-

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University of Toronto St. George

Political Science

POL242Y1

Anthony Sealey

Summer

Description

Lecture#5-AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE DATA
How to submit your project
Submit both write up and Nvivo Project
Locate your assignment by searching for “yourporjectname.nvp”
Making a copy of Nvivo project by C/P
Email copy to Anthony.
Writing up your assignment
When writing about particular aspects of your Nvivo analysis, please be sure to include
screenshots of what you’re describing.
Levels of Measurement
1) Categorical –Province (someone is from Ontario, Saskatchewan etc…)
2) Ordinal- is also categorical but includes ADDITIONAL INFO (idea of order), which categorical
DOES NOT have. (Ontarians are better than Albertans) contains natural ranking
3) Interval- length of time is the exact same.
4) Ratio – Like interval but additional info that interval doesn’t have. (NATURAL POINT OF ZERO, or
zero point) 0 where it means none. (if you have 0 height, you have no height)
Categorical groups things together
Discreet variablemeasured in terms of fixing units where each day is at least one unit. (e.g.
flipping a coin to determine head or tails. You can’t get half or quarter of a head. Discreet units
CAN’T be used as a fraction.
Continuous variableinvisible divisibility . Between two points, there are many subunits.
Statistics can summzrize data. Reduce the data in 5 or 6 different ways of representing data. Three
different summarization of data sets.
Measures (http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/standard-deviation-formulas.html)
1) Measures of Central Tendency “Pick a number” “Close counts”
e.g. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
Both Tom and Harry chose a suboptimal choice
An optimal choice for number is: the average (5.5)
If tom chooses 7, then the optimal choice would be 6. (because close counts)
Mean (u)=
Sample statistic describes a sample. When we talk about population, we use greek letter (u) for
the mean. N=size of population. e.g. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 100 *Mean is a bad choice for choosing the number for this set.*
The average or mean of this set is 14.5.
Why doesn’t the mean work out? The 100 value is pulling the mean really far. (one outlier, one
unusual data point, the mean is pulled out of the whack).
Choose the MEDIAN: after arranging the data from highest to lowest, the median is the value in
the middle
Median is 5.5. (Even number: average the middle
e.g. 1,2,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
Mode
2)Measure of Dispersion
1,2,3,4,5, Range= Large number- smallest number
Population Variance formula
(X denotes sample mean)
2 2 2 2 2
= (1-3) +(2-3) +

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