A table is a simple n x n visualization of the includence of joint occurrence of particular values of
each of the variables.
The analysis of tables is a relatively simple, straightforward technique that allows us to assess
Find the cell that indicates women on the left
o Bottom right are women on the right
0 is left and 1 is right
Women on the right top right??
When assessing relationships, there are two key components to consider: strength and
generalizable. (how strong a relationship and how much info do we have from this relationship?
Strength of relationship, keep in mind of the dimensionality and level of measurement of each
of the variables.
Depending on the dimensionality and level of measurement, we use different measures of
association to assess strength.
Different researchers prefer different measures of association. To simplify
Case1: if we have two binary variables, use phi.
Case 2: if we have a nominal variables, Use Cramer’sV.
Case 3: If we have two symmetric ordinal variables, use Tau-B
Case 4: If we have two asymmetric ordinal variables, Use Tau-C.
Right Measure of Association
Crosstab Specification Measure of association Indication of Direction
Nominal x nominal 2x2 Phi Yes
Nominal x nominal Greater tha