Pearson’s R and Spearman’s p
As the dots spread out, correlation decreases
The idea of spearman’s row is the same idea as correlation. One of the things we are looking for
is: Logan regression (nonlinear relation)
Assignment #2 Write up
Tablesassessment (explain whether there are relations.) (tell why you are using the statistic
you have chosen) is it a strong relationship?
Graphics assessment of graphics (2-3 sentences) What is the graph telling you?
o Basic idea of what it is demonstrating
Anything that is at the end of arrow 0 & lftrght<4] 3 & lftrght<8] 7 & lftrght<11] high value
o DO you think women have the right to abortion?
Strongly disagreelow value When recording ensure that all indicators have same range. Make sure that each of your
indicators has the minimum (0) and maximum (1), and that intermediary values are equally
spaced in between.
o E.g. binaryyes or no?--> one end of spectrum should be yes and the other is no.
Non Traditionalist Moral Traditionalist
Step 3: Reliability analysis
Cronbach’s ALPHA score. (0.5 or higher= more accuracy)
Highest possible score
Range between 0 and 1 (directionality must be correctly coded)
o If not, then it is negative (directionality of one code is wrong)
1= being strong fit, 0=weakest
Unstandardized and standardized score
o Difference between the two: If one of the indicators is 0 and 1, and has two categories
but the other shave 4 or 10 categories, standardized would compare between then.
For the purposes of this course, we will use a standardized alpha score of 0.50 as our cut off.
Step four: Combining Indicators
Once we have tested the indicators to ensure that their fit is good, the next step is to combine
them into a single Indicator
Add them up and divide by the number of indicators.
Syntax method for Indicators (Moral traditionalist index)
Standardized alpha score 0.6096 (goo d score)
MRTRIN1, MRTRIN2, MRTRIN3 (if we delete any of these items, the alpha score would go down)
o CES 2004 data set
The Standardized alpha score has to be higher than the alpha scores of the other three items
World Value Survey (Wave 4 Post Indus)
The Third indicator:
DMVSN1, DMVSN2, DMVSN3
DO these variables fit together (step 3) Lecture two-Factor Analysis
Factor analysis falls within a broad category of methodological approaches that are useful for
identifying patterns and commonalities in sets of indicators that might be conceptualized using a
variety of alternative sets of concepts.
Other similar approaches include:
o Principal component analysis
o Cluster analysis
o Multidimensional scaling.