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Political Science
Antoinette Handley

th POL301Y – February 12 class Africa has higher mean temperatures and lower rainfall than in other continents Around the equator intense year round rainfall ---equatorial rain forests Larger band has wet summer and dry winter Outer edges: extremely dry Below central Africa there is higher rainfall than the north Rainfall- the equatorial belt generally has high rainfall, whereas northern and southern African countries and those in the horn of Africa are typically arid or semi-arid All parts of Africa, even those that usually have high rainfall experience climatic variability .and extreme events such as floods or droughts Cold temperatures are a real barrier to the reproduction of disease and bacteria, and so we get very few of them across much of the tropics. For a long time all the African woodlands which is all towards the south, were essentially off limits to the raising of cattle and horses, because of tetsifly which go after large domestic animals, which means that you can't use them to boost your agricultural productivity. Similarly plant pests are much more prolific in the tropics. This gives us an overall picture of why food production is faced with chronic conditions, so low yields and fragility. As a consequence of its climate, the argument goes that these are some of the key reasons why Africa suffer from chronically low agricultural productivity and hence lower agricultural trade to other parts of the world, thus also harming .their commodities markets ?Policy Failure .2 agricultural crises dates back from 1970's ---robert bates: marketing board (1 urban bias – over rural dwellers (2 Industrial development over agricultural development African states systematically adopted a sset of policies which disadvanataged the rural .agricultural interests which were actually the majority the peasantry in Africa as a political constituency- most people are talking about that .3 group of people engaged in agriculture whom have land use rights. It's not permanently owned by the people who are farming. Often associated with much more small scale agriculture. Generally would be reliant on rainfall, and you might use some cattle but .principally relying on human power i) politics in Africa considered an urban phenomena .agrilcuture seemd to do well under the new zimbabwian government ii) predominance of exit (Al Hirschman) – he tal
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