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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Abbas Gnamo

POL301 Lecture NotesMay 23 2013The Scramble for Africa 18801900oEuropeans found substantial amounts of Gold and Diamond in South AfricaoThe building of the Suez Canal was also criticaloConvened by German Chancellor Otto Von Bismarcko14 major European powersoNo African elader was invitedoAfrica was divided on the map without taking into account and cultural religious and ethnic differences of African societiesoSet the ground for invasion and colonizationo18851914oMap on LECTURE NOTESTypes of coloniesoColonies of settlementAlgeria Kenya South Africa Rhodesia etc with significant number of white settlers where direct rule by Europeans over African applied generallyDuring independence it was not easy to give up land from colonizers to colonizedoColonies of exploitationMost of the colonies in Africa and Asia with a small number of European population living among the colonizedMethods of colonial rule in Africaofour main theoriesAssimilationAssociationDirect ruleIndirect ruleoBest knows was however French policy of assimilation and the British policy of indirect ruleoIndirect rule British the brain child of British colonial administrator Lord Lugard author of The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa 1919The dual mandate meant to develop the colonies politically and economically and also to exploit them for the benefit of the metropolitan economyoBritish Indirect RuleIndirect rule was based on ethics tradition and theoryDecentralization and continuityDelegation of powers and maintain balance bn tradition and modernityCooperation and evolutionary changeRuled through indigenous authoritiesThe British had to deal with taxation military force and alienation of land
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