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Lecture 11

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Abbas Gnamo

POL301 Lecture NotesJune 18 2013Movement towards democracy in AfricaoAfrica did not embrace democracy until the 1980sMost were military rule personal rule or 1party ruleOnly 23 countries had a political culture of democracy Botswana GhanaoFocus after independence was national sovereignty and not democracyoMotto at the time was One Leader One Party One Nation One StateHope was to create a united African stateoJackson talks about neopatrimonial personal rule more extensivelyo1989 Second IndependenceAfrica witnessed a sudden resurgence of democracyoVast majority of African countries held multiparty electionsoBenin was the first country to organize a conference for the transfer of power from one group to anotherAfrica from MonoPartyism to MultiPartyismoFor many years following decolonization in the 1960s Africas best prospect for democracy appeared to lie in the Anglophone countries due to the relatively favourable democratic legacy of British colonial ruleoThe problems of multiparty system in newly independent Africa was that class differences were much less deep and sharp than in EuropeoDivision was not based on class but based on ethnicityoMost leaders and organizers of the parties and mass movements during the 1960 had to be personas of educational or other privilege These personas were the articulate minority destined to ruleoMany of them did not want to let go of their power and suggested that multiparty politics was a luxury which developing nations could not affordoConsensus by academics and governments that multiparty elections will bring chaos to newlyindependent African statesoThe objectives was to create one strong party which would represent the political mobilization of the whole nation and which get on with business of government and development without interferenceThe spread acceptance of statebuilding it is the creation of a political community that gives a fuller meaning of the life of the stateThe second but even more important task was nationbuilding and national integration Nationbuilding can be defined as process whereby people transfer their commitment and loyalty from smaller tribes villages or petty principalities to the larger central political system and territorial unit of sovereigntyNation building through social engineering is the most importantChange names to African names build railroads and transportation to connect the nationoMost leaders who had initial support due to their rhetoric of anticolonialism ended up becoming presidential monarchs personal rulers
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