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Political Science
Abbas Gnamo

Lecture 1The rise of europe and imperialism 1492 two major developmentsThe discovery Until 18th century europe was not more advanced than Asia and Africa 2 groups of factors set stage for modern economc growth and socio political change 300 years between 14th and 17th centuriesof europe geographical expansionism andof renaissance and enlightment industrialization between 17th and 18th centuries this is an important term enlightment industrialization it was a movement for many purposesThe enlightment led to the french revolution took place around 18th century in France equality freedom and justice Then came the industrial revolution in 1758 a change in technology European renaissance and enlightmentexplasoipm of intellectual Columbus arriving in the Americas there was a portugese that arrived in African post When the english people came to Africa many of the indigeneous people died as a result of diseases from the the Europeans There was little labor and then the Africans were used to do the workSLAVE TRADE With the rise European and Arab influence in Africa at the of the 15th century there came a global perception of slavery as legitmate and necessary tool of political and economic expansion Four majors slave trade networks specialized in the export of african slaves The Atlantic slave trade primairly shipped slaves to the Western Hemisphere North America South America THe trans Sahara slaves trade whuch principially sold slaves to the mediterranean coastal regions Some estimated that the trans African slave trade exported 11313000 The red sea slave trade which sent slaves to the middle east and south Asian THE END OF THE SLAVE TRADE the british act of 1807 to abolish slave trade was not an act of altruism Slaves in SOuth Africa Jamaica and elsewhere in the British empire would have to wait another three decdes for theor emancipation One has to add also the resistance by slaves to liberate themselves that ended in the liberation of haiti at the end of the 18th century The abolition oslavery gave the way for what they called legitimate trade colonialism Haiti became the first to revolt against the white men and liberated THE IMPACTS OF SLAVE TRADE WEST AFRICA Slave trading brought about massive social disruption or depopulation The trading and warfare necessary for the provision of slaves was mostly carried by indigenous groups in collaboration with European traders on the Cost1 In the Carribean Brazil the southern USA the experience of slavery had profound consequences for social differentiation and cultural patterns that are stil felt today Even Africans collaborated with the Europeans for the purpose of owning guns and fighting battles 3 FOR EUROPE Where the often vast profits of slave traders and shippers and plantation owners were directed slavery contributed to the accumulation of welath and facilitated the transitions to industrial capitalismIMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM Imperialism refers to a apolicy of extending rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies F Schuman defined imperialism in the following terms In the loose usage of historians the term often refers to any stance of state acquiring colonies or building an empire particulary when the land involved are oversea and the people affected are alien in culture and race ImperiumImperialism used first in 1851 Three stages of Imperialism 1st 1492 Global expansion by Columbus 2nd British Dominance from 1776 to 1870 3rd New imperialism started from 1870 to 1941 Imperialism is as old as the state Modern colonialism began with the age of Discovery during which European nations founded throughout the new world COLONIALISM Colonialism refers to the political social economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time It is a relationship in which groups of people located in one country dominate othersforeign occupationIMPERIALISM Imperialism refers to a general system of domination by a state of other state region of the whole wordNEOCOLONIALISM is the process by which rish powerful developed states use economic political and informal means to exert pressure on poor less powerful underdeveloped state Neocolonialism means informal or indirect control which came into use in the 1950s after Eurpean withdrawal from their coloniesTHE MOTIVE OF EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM1 The economic theory Hobson Lenin over production surplus capital under consumption in the industrialized countries led them to palce larger and larger portion of their economic resources outside the area of thier present political domain and to stimulate a policy of political expansion Imperialism is the highest stafe of imperialism lenin2 Social Darwinism emphasizing the alleged superiority of European race over other races natural selection and the survival of the fittest3 Evangelical Christianitya broader humanitarian and missionary impulse to westernize the African people Church supported the state and state supported the church The smartest is determined by skin color according to the Europeans This idea of Darwinism led to Nazism4 Social atavism imperialism was a result of a natural desire of man to dominate his fellow man for the sake of dominating him arising out of mans universal thirst for power and domination but this theory is unconvincing5 Diplomatic theory balance of pwer national prestige and global strategy6 African dimension theory the transition from slave trades to legitimate trade and the subsequent decline in both the export and the import during that periodHOW THE EUROPEANS DID MANAGE TO CONQUER AFRICA They knew more about African politics land and people thanks top explorers and missionaries merchants etc than African did know about Europe2 Medical technolog europeans less fearful about African diseases since the middle of the 19th century
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