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POL302Y1 (1)
Lecture 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Vic Falkenheim

Lecture 2 - Book: China WILL democratize, the question is when and how - Chinese conceived themselves as Tian Xia - Imperial state, monarchy – authority centralized on the emperors - Mandate of heaven – emperors must rule morally, virtuously, ritually - Mencius o Scholar colleague: execution of the king is criticized for a murderer o Mencius response was typical school of Confucianism.  Challenge the critical judgement that the king abuses his power by exploitation. Therefore he is not the king.  Reference today: democratic reform in China today. Embracing democratic forms within Confucius culture - 3 levels of exams (entrance exam). Really competitive. Only offered to males. Payoffs are great. Invest all of steir lives to the greatest child for the preparation for the exams o Pass 1 level: tutor - Education is a virtue o Confucius: with education, there is no such thing as status or class. o Mencius: all men can become yao/xun. 2 of China’s early founders of emperor? o Careers are open to talented people. Universalistic o Recruit loyal servants - Created 1 modern state - Chinese society was family oriented - Confucius saying: good irons are not used to make the nails, good men are not used to make soldiers. o Aims/goals of the state enlightens social ends o Importance of farmers o *People are the foundation of the state. - Shi: 4 levels of hierarchy o Scholar’s entry o Farmers/peasants (Nong) o Artisans/workers (Gong) o Merchants (Shang) - When system was working properly, the state actually allied themselves with small farmers against local police, merchants to preserve independent power and recognition of the importance of the kind of ethic service o Efficient benevolent desperatism. Significant opportunity for mobility within Confucian ethical framework. Confucianism stresses human protectively? for education - 1 in the same nation consisting 3 doctrine and 1 institution - Over centralization of authority in China o Unlike Japanese, ruled and rained. Symbolic. Particularly vulnerable to the leadership - British started to get good king/monarch and bad king/monarch. o Characteristics of early emperors of Chinese dynasties  System is exercised too much power in Beijing, too little power in locals  Official salaries were supplemented by local “local squeeze”. Monarchy tend to be collapsed  Economist: Inconsistency. Significant level of collapse associated with ? - Overtime, increasing corruption out of the fiscal system. Over population. Land becomes
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