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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Revolutionary Struggles II.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Roberta Rice

Video – Fire in the Mind El Salvador -joined guerrilla movements as a response to the failure of peaceful protest and to attempting changing through parliamentary measures -FMLN – coalition of 5 guerilla groups -the example of Cuba – arms could bring change where other methods had changed -Cuba provided support to FMLN -the success of Sandinistas in Nicaragua -US poured billions into economic aid into El Salvador -US perceptions that FMLN revolutionaries “Tougher” – would implement a cuba style revolution -US trying to make an example out of El Salvador -roll back Soviet and Cuban example -Radio Vencemeros – a key voice for the FMLN -the Church -some elements openly supported the guerrillas -but some elements supported a negotiated solution – condemned the atrocities committed by both sides -first serious attempt at negotiation by newly eelected President Duartes -failed…military backed by U.S refused to compromise -November 1989 – the FLMN “final offensive” -called for a popular uprising – hoping to win a military victory -75, 000 people dead, and a million people displaced Shining Path -Peru a “country in trouble” -variety of governments – democratic civilian, military autocratic -1980 – Shining Path first took up arms -highlights of Ayacucho -rejected democracy – called for a radical restructuring of Peruvian society -communist state (Maoism) -Abimael Guzman – known as presidente Gonzalo -view revolutionary violence as a necessity -core to their strategy and ideology -strategy of violence very polarizing -further polarized a deeply divided society -high rate of disappearances in the late 1980s -U.S involvement as a part of their War on Drugs -Alberto Fujimori – U.S backed President took on dictatorial authority II – The FMLN and Shining Path Comparison Key Events – El Salvador -1932: La Matanza (The Slaughter) -an indigenous peasant uprising is met by severe repression from the state -led by Agustin Farabundo marti -FMLN focuses attacks more on military targets -El Salvador state – focused more on attacking the civilians -1980 – The Farabunto Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) forms -death rate – 33 pppl per day at the height of the violence st 1981 – Jan 10, the FMLN launches 1 major military offensive -1989: in November, FMLN carries out its largest offensive -FMLN was probably Latin America’s strongest guerrilla movement -but they still couldn’t win – that’s the puzzle -1992 – the government of El Salvador and the FMLN signed a peace accord -and then they had a truth commission -the current president of the El Salvador – former leader of FMLN -FMLN converted themselves to a legitimate political party Key Events – Peru -can’t go back to the past with Peru – Guzman just popped up really
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