Lecture #3- From Independence to In Dependence
The Era of Independence (1810-1830)
Factors in Latin America’s Drive to Independence
The Growing rivalry between Creoles and Peninsulares
o Creoles started to have economic power but the Pens were monopolizing the
administrative and governmental positions. Creoles did not like that and asked why
foreigners were running their country
Events in Europe undermined Spanish Authority.(1807 + 1808)
Emerging commercial class in Latin America that wanted to trade and diversify their trading
o Colonial rule was that you can only trade with Spanish.
Under the impact of 18 century enlightenment, ideas of liberty, freedom and nationalism
began to enter into Latin America.
o Liberals vs. Conservatives(Creoles)
Simon Bolivar (1703-1830) “George Washington of Latin America”
o Freed most of Andes from Spanish country
o Wealthy family from Venezuela
o Used family fortune to lead the independence wars from Spanish war. Strong leader
coming from Creole class.
What are some of the causes of independence or pathways to independence? (Midterm
3 Distinct Paths to Independence
1) Haiti’s path to independence which was a slave land revolution.
o Gained independence from France by way of mass labor vote in 1791 before the rest of
LA gt going. Sanctioned and isolated from France, US etc….
o Made massive reparations to French slave owners
o IN May of 1791, tensions began to raise in Haiti and France had a revolution, where its
new government granted citizenship to wealthy free people of color in Haiti.
o Tensions began to break out between slave holders
o Estimated 100 000 slaves participated in this revenge of 1791.
o Most successful slavery movement ever.
i. “Haiti became the first black nation but unloved”
2) Spanish America’s Path to independence (Creole led wars)
o Own uprising in mainland and made the hesitant to get everyone riled up for
o Lots of uprisings and some examples right before independence that may have fuelled
elite’s fears esp. between the years of 1742 and 1782 (Era of Andean Insurrecdson)
i. Tupac AMru of Peru (1780) Ernie Tam
ii. Led big revolution against Spain and became a symbol of indigenous symbol
o Tupac Katari of Bolivia (1781) and Barrolina Sisa
i. “I will return and be a million”
o In mexico, a priest did a similar type of revolt and Father Miguel Hidalgo of Mexico
i. N.Mexico 90, 000 got killed b/c the enemy couldn’t tell the difference
between the people
3) Brazil’s path to independence (Royal proclamation)
o Royal proclamationNapoleon invaded Portugal and the king at that time Dom Joa/
entire family escaped to Brazil where they lived there for a long time.
o Eventually, Porgual said to go back and so Dom Joao did. But left his son, Dom pedro in
o Dom Joa made Brazil into a kingdom and equal to Portugal b/c he loved it so much
o The political system changed through the king’s decision. But did not affect economic
o Military generals that were ig on independence wars wanted to be players in the real
world which brought in the new era
The Era of Coudillismo (1830-1880) Age of Political Instability
Colonial Period (Colonial authorities + landowners + Church)
o They replaced the Colonial authorities with the Coudillismo
Main Political actors after independence were the Cardillos + landowners + Church.
Strong MAN RULE was the main ruling of this country
Caudillismo: or strong man rule; the organization of political life by local bosses whose power
and influence derives from personal fortune, family or military association.
o Law and order from strong man rule
When they did capture the government, they were PERSONALISTIC, they let the power reside it
in themselves. THe populist leaders of Latin America nowadays are accused of being Coudillismo
b/c they are concentrating too much on themselves. (I AM THE GOVERNMENT) such as Hugo
Example: Rafael Carrera (Guatemala) [1844-1848, 1851-1865]
Example #2: Juan Manuel de Las Rosas (Argentina) [1830-1852]
Vigilantes hired to protect animals, lands, and become powerful of their party.
LA was very weak, captured by Coudillismos,
Ecuador: Universal Suffrage (1979) transitioned to democracy…
Most countries had a Liberal Party which stood for trade and export, rights of certain individuals
who were of the right class, wanted to reduce power of church in society,
Conservative Partyagricultural, production for one domestic economy, traditional ties to
church, family and land Ernie Tam