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Lecture

Latin American class Notes Nov 5th.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL305Y1
Professor
Roberta Rice

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Latin American class Notes Nov 5th I Pacted Democracies  Economic Data on our cases (2010) Country GM/cap HDI POP %urban %indig Costa Rica 7660 .744 3,897552 61 .75 Columbia 5,519 .609 46,300,196 73 2.7 Venezuela 11,590 .696 28,834,000 93 1.5  Democratic Pact/Elite Governing Pack: agreement between political elites to build support for democracy by ensuring victory by centrist and moderate parties and to exclude political forces that might pursue alternative economic and political models. Can be done formally eg party priority or informally to limit official opposition. When one party is in power, there is an agreement that the other party won’t mobilize their supporters. II The Curios Case of Costa Rica Historically  Little indigenous, few natural resource ex gold. So Europeans settled there based on small family farming.  Few elites because there was a lot of small farmers and groups  The power of elites tied to the church or Spanish bureaucracy or export market was limited.  Benefits of this dynamic are o 1. Avoided destructive conflicts between liberals and conservatives pulling in 2 different directions for policies. Ex church or free trade stuff. Not enough elites to call shots o 2. Lack of ideological interests facilitated elite compromise and peaceful conflict resolution  World Coffee market o Export income better distributed than in other countries because a lack of elites  Common sense of destiny that united the different classes and social proximity. 1824: 65,000 population  1930’s Great Depression -> labour unrest; Communist Party Union  1940’s Rafael Calderón elected; platform of social harmony through state intervention  1948 he won under suspicious circumstances  José Figueres called him out for cheating and lead to civil war of 1948 for 5 weeks, 2000 deaths  Key to democratic exceptionalism is a pact between competing elites and conflicting social classes to lay the groundwork for democratic governing II The Worrisome Case of Columbia  Most violent place in planet in 90’s  Liberal and Conservative Parties founded in 1849, these elite-led parties developed strong roots in society that they used to mobilize for their own purposes  Zero-sum democracy. If liberals were in power, they’d scrap everything conservative vice versa attacking other group’s values  La violencia (1946-1958) 200,000 deaths  Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (53’-57) Columbia only military dictatorship  Key to democratic exceptionalism: national front from 58-78 elite governing pact that terminated the historic rivalry between the liberals and conservatives -> institutionalized bipartisanship. Would ensure mutual guarantees in the protection of their interests Columbia: Cast of Characters  Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC): s guerr
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