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Latin Jan 7th.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL305Y1
Professor
Roberta Rice
Semester
Winter

Description
th Latin Jan 7   I Democratic Transitions II Economic Adjustment III Pathways to Change   I Democratic Transitions • Third wave of Democracy; the widespread transition from authoritian to  democratic government that has taken place in the global south and  eastern Europe since the mid 1970s • First Wave 1828­1926 • Second Wave: 1943­1962 Causes of third wave • 1.) International Pressure ex Human Rights Groups NGO’s, end of  Cold War. “Contagion Effect” • 2.) Economic Crisis; debt crisis of 1982 • 1982 ­> L.A.’s foreign debt was 327 billion vs 1970 29billion.  Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Venezuela = 74% of 3  world debt • 3.) Popular Protest. Eg Argentina’s Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo.  (1976­1983) Paths to Democracy 1. Negotiation: Democracy as a result of a political bargain or pact  between military and civilian forces. Hardliners  (Duros) vs Softliners (blandos). Political liberalization: reform of  authoritarianism and the extension of basic freedoms. Ex Chile’s  controlled transformation under Pinochet 1973­991 Key Moment: Patricio Aylwin: the transition could take place  under the 1981 constitution Advantages of Pact  ­Little Violent confrontation ­Change in regime ­political stability  ­economic stability  Disadvantages ­Only marginal transformation possible ­Fosters disappointment among general population among general  population ­limited ability to address human rights abuses 2. Rupture: Democracy as a result of the total collapse of a military  regime due to defeat in war or a popular uprising eg argentina and  Bolivia General Jorge Rafael Videla 1976­1981  Pres. Raúl Alfonsin (1983). Went to Falkland Island Malvinas
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