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Lecture 2

POL305 Lecture 2 January 8th .rtf

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Donald Kingsbury

POL305 Jnauary 8th 2013 STATES&INSTITUTIONS; PEOPLES AND CONFLICTS. Defining Latin America • 1.) political • geopolitical • capitalist world system: authors within the school of world systems analysis (Wallerstein and Arrighi) argue that the world in which we live is defined by the dominant economic mode of production that is the dominant tendency as opposed to actuality. • tendency means how lives and labor are reproduced, what sort of subject positions are created (rich, poor, worker, owner, citizenship etc) the cultural matrix that surrounds the world in which we live • how things work globally and cultural explanations • capitalism is a tendency, criteria by which all other modes of production are judged • in this notion of the idea of capitalism as a dominant mode of production spreading throughout the world but it spreads unevenly. it distributes the benefits and harms of its mode of economic production unevenly (privileged centres, not so privileged peripheries) • latin america has historically had a position within the capitalist world as a place of raw material exportation. it is very resource rich, raw materials turned into consumer goods • historically has been a raw material provider because of its history, economically it has a peripheral position within the capitalist world systems theory • in the geopolitical standpoint, its had a subordinate role within the US sphere of influence dating back to the Monroe Doctrine, cold war and current global age • Monroe Doctrine (1823): proclamation of James Monroe essentially saying Europe stays out of the affairs of the western hemisphere (latin region), therefore granting US primary control over Latin America • Simon Bolivar, Venezuelan General held a conference in Panama proposing a union of Latin American countries (1823), logic behind it was to protect themselves against the destiny of being plagued by the US • the Monroe document has served as support and legitimization of US intervention into Latin America • Cold War, Globalization • 2.) Regime Types • liberal democratic republic : rights based democracies, rule of law, elections, separation of church and state, preference towards free markets • presidential systems: not parliamentary, the executive branch is very strong, power for presidents to rule by decree • political-civil-economic-military: tension between political, civil, economic and military leaderships, strong hist
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