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Political Science
Donald Kingsbury

POL305 January 22nd POST-NEOLIBERALISM AS TRANSITION • no universal form of neoliberalism,it was different in every country and at times in every city. imposed differently in different places • there is a general consensus surrounding the notion of neoliberalism • neoliberalism sold to american public was as a theory of the shrinking state, where privatization and deregulation • idea was the state had grown too big, inefficient, not a good economic actor, interfering in peoples lives, so it had to be shrunk • the privatization and deregulation are most frequently brought up • it gets the state out of the state owned industry, most prototypical example is the case of chile under the dictatorship of Pinochet • when he took power in 1973, this was 3 years after the socialist president Allende had nationalized the copper industry and at the time it accounted for 60% of GDP • Pinochet knew liberalization as privatization, so the copper industry remains in private hands.. not re-privatizes it • pinochet was never able to re-privatize it. Arguments as to why include, copper was seen as too vital of a national strategic resource, all politics is local politics so key figures of the military junta and key supporters of it benefited from state control of the privatization of it, there was also strong resistance on the part of the workers of this industry, popular resistance to privatization so it never happened • neoliberalism was executed or practised the same in every place • similarly, when people argue that neoliberalism shrinks the state, this is a wrong definition of what if does • Harvey argues neoliberalism wasn't about shrinking the state, it actually strengthened the state, protected intellectual property rights, actual property rights etc • the judiciary and the police are also strengthened • redistribution of wealth from a shared sense of social welfare, into the hands of a few people • neoliberalism not the same area, not always about a shrinking state. • Second caveat: forms of governance is just a generic way to think about the way in which we organize power, access to resources, identities, its a general statement as there are multiple forms of governance historically, presently and in the future • when thinking about transitionary periods, important to understand humans haven't always organized themselves this way (democratic markets) nor will we always. Polyarchy in Latin America • post cold war 'soft power' • low-intensity democracy • mass suffrage with limited substantive potential for change • polyarhcy as a project promoted by the USA ID (International Development) 1954 reformer gets elected in Guatemala (Arbenz) says the problem of the indian problem in question is in respect to land, owned by the United Fruit Company (UFC) • the problem was in getting the yankees out of central america • Cuban revolution also a nationalist revolution. • nationalist governments happening, revolutions taking place • 1961 Kennedy founds the ID he says those who make reform impossible, make revolution inevitable, a preemptive idea • since then US has been widely criticized throughout latin america • criticized because, it tends to be politically deployed, given the sense its entire foundation has been made on its desire to preempt this revolutionary formation • the other critique is that much of it's actual development is in the direct interest of US business, projects tend to be focused on infrastructure that benefit US production before it helps poverty reduction in the latin american region • there is a systemic interest at hand not about the us but about the capitalist world systems • USAID funding groups that had US goals in mind • world economic forum, tries to mobilize the private sector to respond to the world's problems. • group puts forward ideas and private initiatives, doesn't have the legislative power like the Bretton Woods institutions do • Bretton Woods, chief goal is to rebuild europe, aid in development of the decolonized developing world Neoliberal Globalization • Global restructuring- structural adjustment policies (SAPs) • tarket: keynesianism
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