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Political Science
Donald Kingsbury

POL305 January 27th CHILE: DICTATORSHIP AND EL MODELO CHILE • considered most stable democracy in region 1830s-1973 • relatively diversified, advanced economy, relatively smaller population=higher degree of social development • developmentalist state 1924-1973 • but stark division between european and indigenous population • historically strong, professional domestically and internationally involved military • war of the pacific (1879-83) : chile invades peru, annexes Salt peter mines, access the northern border, turning bolivia into a landlocked nation and removing key resources for bolivia and peru • civil war 1891: battle fought by the military over the limitations of the military power, president ended up losing, suggests the importance of institutions in chile • labour unrest 1940s-70s : start seeing ideological and military cracks, more incidences of labour unrest • but also divided class/political composition of chilean armed forces • higher degrees of human development, having to do with every government in power including allende had state level development on his agenda • the aim is industrialization, no longer depending on agrarian and mining economies, emphasis on urban development, increasing rates of education, expanding suffrage • critics have pointed out that there is a stark division between the european chileans and indigenous peoples, a war between the central state and the indigenous populations that has been going on since colonization up until the present • significant portions of the southern part of chile have not been seated by the indigenous peoples • still a stark division of the quality of life enjoyed by chileans of european descent and those of mestizo descent • chile considers itself up until the 1970's to have the most robust democratic and legal system in North America • this was the downfall of Allende who believed you could reform the constitution through the vote, first avowed socialist to be elected. Military Rule in Latin America 1964-1970 • how the military rules: bureaucratic authoritarianism, individual dictatorship, corporatism, foreign coordination • bureaucratic authoritarianism: coined for latin american politics, refers to a situation in which the military rules as an institution, not an individual leader. it is a ruling committee. seeks to rule and develop the economy without politicizing it, has extreme distrust of democracy • perfect ex. brazil 1964, generals said the politicians couldn't be trusted to run the country anymore, brazil was on the verge of developing industrializing, • individual dictatorship, the junta steps in, very clear that pinochet runs the show and is the face of chile internationally and domestically • the difference between the two is that in one there is a military running as an institution, individual has a leader (pinochet) • Corporatism: views all of society as one body, which is organized into representative bodies, the coordination of those bodies contributes to the functioning whole that is the social body • means that some parts are subordinated to others • the legalistic and institutionally minded gov't of allende meant that change was coming slowly, he was promising these changes, equality and nati
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