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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Rachael Gibson

POL 306 Lec. 9 Prof. Gibson BA1210 Wed. Aug. 1, 2012  Announcements o No class Monday o Research paper due Wednesday o Prof away Friday-Tuesday o Only 2 more classes o Last class – lecture + exam review Globalization: Processes of De-and Re-territorialization  Globa’n def: dual process through which… o 1) the movement of commodities, capital, money, people, and info is continually expanded and accelerated AND o 2) relatively fixed and immobile spatial structures are produced, reconfigured, and/or transformed to enable such expanded, accelerated movement (Brenner 1999)  Involves interplau bw drive 2wards time-space compression (de-terr) and ongoing production/reconfig of relatively fixed spatial entitites (re-terr)  So not just about geo’l extension and integration of capital across the globe  This is premised upon constructuio of territorial infrastructures that can enable capital to circulate at accelerated rate across space  Predictions re: replacement of “places” with “floes”, the dissolution of national borders –a ‘borderless’ world and the ‘death of geo’y’  National pol’l units and national cul’l identities seen as ‘deterritorialized’ in face if increased integration (ecoic poll cull)  Emphasis on accelerated circulation of ppl, capital, money, identities, images, and so on, through global space  A preoccupation with flows or circulation of such elements is problematic for at least 2 reasons o 1) ignores forms od territorial organization e.g. urban centres and state regulatory institutions which enable such accelerated movement o 2) ignores ways in which neo-liberal forces of globn depend on and are expressed through major transformations of territorial organization  Post-1970s wave of globn decentered the role of the national state –neolib ideology  Inteinsified both sub- and spura- national forms of territorial organization  Current round of globn has reconfigured the scalar organization of caputal’s ongoing dynamic of de- and re- territorialisation  Globn refers to combined processes of… ?  Rescaling Processes o Rescaling def: way in which diff spatial scales of governance can be transformed and reordered o Rescaling the state implies 2 processes:  1) territorial/spatial reorg of poll authority  2) activism of civil society leaders as part of neolib state restructuring, esp. since 1970s and 80s o Changes in the spatial dimensions of state authority driven by changes in globn pressures o Led to concentration of capitalism’s global infrastructure in specific places – i.e. some of the world’s largest cities o Globn created ecoic winners and losers, a hierarchy of cities has emerged o In Canada, immigrant-magnet cities (Toronto and Vancouver) are considered to be amongst the winners o Rescaling literature suggests that as cities become key nodes in global economy, we should see greater investment in cities by senior governments o Also predicts emergency of competitive urban-governance coalitions – urban regimes o Brenner describes shift in Europe towards ecoic-devt policies in prioritizing cities and rise of new forms of poll orgn at the metropolitan scale o Rescaling processes = multifaceted and complex o Suggests movement from bottom-up e.g. new coalitions and renewed importance of city regions, and top-down e.g. national govt support of coalitions/regimes and supra- national interdependencies w/ local level o Rescaling concept offers causal explanation for the emergence of multilevel governance arrangements o Multilevel governance  A system of continuous negotiation among nested govts at several territorial tiers, supranational, national, regional, and local  It involves processes of institutional creation and decision reallocation which have pulled some previously centralized functions of the something something?  Involves both structural changes and poll agency  E.g. emergence of new polyscalar coalitions in Toronto and Montreal in response to amalgamation  These coalitions mobilized across multiple scales, tried to form alliances at diff levels  Adopted broader, multi-territorial approaches, rather than sectoral mobilization strategies o Changes in fiscal federalism a good example of intergovtal system’s response to neolib global restructuring o Processes of decentralization and fiscal downloading started in 1970s , reached critical juncture in 1990s in Canada o Important tri-level something something?  World Cities Research o Conceptualization of world cities as a distinctive class of cities o Situated at the top of the global scale central place hierarchies o What are the main indicators of such global cities hierarchies o Varies depending on the study/research group o Often include: ecoic, poll, cull, and infrastructural criteria o Ecoic indicators  Site of corporate headquarters for MNCs  Institutions that influence world economy e.g. intl financial insts, law firms  Provides variety of financial services in finance, insurance, and real estate sectors, banking, etc.  Home to major stock market indices  Agglomeration of wealth –millionaires, billionaires o Poll indicators  Level of influence/participation in intl events and world affairs  Headquarters of intl orgs  Pop of urban centre  Quality of life or level of city devt criteria – related to urbanization trends incl. sprawl, suburbanization, cultural institutions, social service insti
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