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POL305 Lecture6

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Political Science
Roberta Rice

POL305 22-Oct-12 Week 7 Lecture 6 [email protected] Democratic Breakdown and Military Dictatorships - The Breakdown of Populist Democracy - Brazil: Setting the Trend - Chile: The Allende Tragedy - Will the Military Return to Power? Rather than personality dictatorships, these bureaucratic authoritarian regimes centred around militarization. Breakdown of Populist Democracy - Peasants, indigenous, etc revolt for more political say. o Growing radicalism in the 1960s, fueled in part by the Cuban Revolution  Armed the military so much, that they intervened, and democratic leaders fell in the 60s and 70s - Characteristics of the military regimes of the 1960s and 1970s o Blamed the poor state of their countries on politicians and elites  Anti-political approach. Wanted to curtail democracy  Banned parties in the media, dismantled congress  Saw themselves as more effective o Emphasis on loyalty, authority and stability o Military leaders prioritized national security and were preoccupied with internal subversion.  CIA worked with these regimes to train them, arm them, in the School of the Americas (SOA); how to torture (shock therapy etc), repress  SOA= US institute for training military officers around the world (Georgia) o Grassroots campaign against the school.  2000, congress of US decided they had to do something about it, so they renamed it, “The Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation” (WHISC) o Employed systematic use of repression against civilians including widespread use of torture, assassination and disappearances o Bureaucratic Authoritarianism  Especially in the richer countries  Form of institutional, technocratic, military rule that seeks to curtail popular mobilization and is built on a political coalition and policy orientation that entails strong ties to transnational capital  Against conventional wisdom that modernization leads to democracy  Guillermo O’Donnel = BA (bureaucratic authoritarianism) regimes maintain elite domination over the country. Popular sectors excluded from decision-making through repression o Often forged an alliance with multi-national corporations - Factors leading to Democratic breakdown o Breakdown of consensus among political elites  Couldn’t come to compromise over such issues as ISI, populism, reforms  Left/Right political dichotomy led to failure to negotiate  Open invitation to military to step in to decide matters o Abuse of authority by incumbent governments  Violence, oppression, fraud as responses to popular protests  Also open invitation for military to step in o Abuse of democratic processes by a disloyal opposition can lead to a military coup o Polarization of social classes  Elites on one side, workers on the other  1960s, ISI ran out, thus people lost jobs, and thus the left called for change, causing the elites to go to the right, calling the military again to intervene  Middle classes, in stressful situations, tend to side with the right as well o Frustration with the pace of change through constitutional procedures o Economic Crisis  Can’t have a clientilistic system if there are no resources to offer o International context  RECAL= Anti-soviet initiative by the US.  Eg they gave $20million to Brazil in order to prevent socialist parties to come to the fore. o QUESTION= Was the US the primary reason for the fall of democracy in Latin America Brazil: Setting the Trend - President Getulio Vargas (dictator=1930-1945; elected president=1951-1954) o Championed ISI o “Estado Novo” = New State o Commit
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