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POL305 Lecture5

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Political Science
Roberta Rice

POL305 Week6 Lecture5 15-Oct-12 US Interventionism and Insecurity - US Foreign Policy Objectives - Guatemala: United Fruit; the CIA; 1954 Coup - Democracy Promotion? th Midterm test = Dec 13 7-9pm, West hall 15 King’s College Circle US Foreign Policy Objectives o Territorial Gain  Manifest destiny  Notion that white settlements of the continent was the fulfillment of a God-given imperative  Eg US-Mexico War (1846-1848) annexed half of Mexico’s territory o Strategic Security  To prevent against other powers setting up base in “it’s backyard”  Monroe Doctrine (1823)  Monroe claimed that any efforts by European nations to colonize or interfere with states in Latin America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring US intervention  Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904)  The US had the right to intervene in Latin American internal affairs when its own interests were threatened by an external enemy, or by political instability o Ideological hegemony  Shaped by a “parent-child” mentality  Explicit during the Cold War (anti-communism and perceived Soviet domino effect)  Late 1940s; US pressed LA countries to severe relations with USSR and ban communist parties  1980s; promoted counter-revolutionary guerilla movements to physically fight the threats to the status-quo o Advancement of Economic Interests  1950s-1970s; hostility to revolutionary and nationalist policies in LA  Eg Guatemala  1980s; imposition of neoliberalism, creating economic interdependence between the two regions  More primary goods and cheap goods exported to the US  1990s; Free Trade Agreements  NAFTA 1994; Canada, US and Mexico o US are now trying to extend NAFTA to all of the Americas  Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA); US sponsored initiative modeled after NAFTA that would include all 34 countries in the Western Hemisphere, except, of course, Cuba o Many have chastised this as a form of neo-colonialism o This would cut off China, EU, cementing US-LA economic relations Guatemala: United Fruit, CIA, and the 1954 Coup 1954: Reform – minded Guatemalan President Jacobo Arberz was overthrown in a military coup backed by the US Central Intelligence Agency 1944: Military coup brought a reformist, democratically-oriented government into power, which moved for elections 1950: Former Colonel Jacobo Arbenz was elected president with 65% of the votes - He was committed to deepening the reforms - Sympathized with the communists, but was largely a capitalist - Support for Arbenz: workers on the fruit plantations and in the foreign-owned railroads and utility companies - 1952: the Agrarian Reform Law passes o Addressed land-distribution inequality o Expropriated, with compensation, unused land of the United Fruit Company of Boston, in the name of national development  Communist party warned Arbenz that he was making a powerful enemy
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