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POL305 Lecture3

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Roberta Rice

POL305 24-Sep-12 Lecture3 From Independence to In Dependence - The Era of independence - The Era of Caudillismo - The Era of Dependency Does it matter how a country was founded in their development? Why are some of the colonial structures still remaining today? Who were the actors involved in the independence period? The Era of Independence (1810-1830) Factors in Latin America’s drive to independence… - Growing rivalry between Creoles and Penninsulares - Events in Europe (French Revolution) undermined Spanish Authority 1807-1808 o Temporary ousting of monarchs  Once Fernando was back in power, colonies were much more radical: Limited powers of the church, commercio libre - Emerging commercial class in Latin America that wanted to trade - Under the impact of 18 century enlightenment; ideas of liberty, freedom and nationalism began to enter into Latin America Pathways to Independence… - Haiti’s path to independence o Slave-led revolution 1791 o Bottom-up revolution o May 1791 granted citizenship to wealthy free people of colour in Haiti  Thus, creoles became disgruntled, and tensions flared into full-fledged revolution in August 1791 - Spanish America’s path to independence o Top-down o Creole-led wars o 1742-1782: Era of Andean Insurrection  Eg Tupac Amaru of Peru (1780)  Cuzco, Peru  Eg Tupac Katari of Bolivia (1781)  La Paz, Bolivia  Before dying: “I will be back, and I will be millions” o Father Miguel Hidalgo of Mexico (1810)  Northern Mexico  Army of nearly 90,000 farmers marching across Mexico to reclaim their land o Social, Economic factors led to independence, but the vanguards of the revolutions – the elites- made sure that those same economic and social conditions remained intact because it was those which gave them their privilege o Americanos vs Europeans - Brazil’s path to independence o By royal proclamation o Portuguese crown left in Brazil, and Dom Pedro, son of Dom Joao, declared Brazil’s independence Power vacuum left by the Spanish crown was filled by the caudillo The Era of Caudillismo (1830-1880) - Age of Political Instability - RECAL: Colonial period= colonial authorities; landowners; church o Authorities in the Caudillismo era= caudillos, landlords, church - System of non-democratic, strong-man rule; the organization of political life by local “bosses” whose power and influence derive from personal fortune, family or military association - Eg Rafael Carrera (Guatemala) 1844-1848; 1851-1865 - Eg Juan Manuel de las Rosas (Argentina) 1830-1852, landowner - You had to be a literate, white, wealthy man to vote Caudillos often shifted between political ideologies in order to appeal to the masses, or do so divisively otherwise.. - Liberal Party wanted trade, exportation, rights to individual, reduction in the power of the church - Conservative party wanted agricultural production for the domestic economy, traditional ties to church, family and land - Both parties kept taxes low, both got rid of colonial laws which protected indigenous land (for the sake of free labour) The Era of Dependency Political independence didn’t tran
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