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Lec 2 - What is FP.pdf

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Political Science

What is Foreign Policy? Traditional and AlternativeApproaches Office hours: Fridays 12-1 55S (basement 1 Devonshire) What is foreign policy? • state of practice • field of study – academic study of foreign policy practices/analysis • both will generally be encompassed when we talk about foreign policy TraditionalApproaches to FP • foreign policy as we know it is derived from Westphalian system of sovereign states – only possible for us to talk about foreign policy since 1648 ◦ didn't really exist prior to this, reason why FP is tied to the state and sovereignty is that we have a particular absence of global political order – anarchy defines global contemporary politics ▪ anarchy is not chaos, it is the absence of a global, political authority – a single sovereign governing the entire world • any form of order or politics is politics that takes place below the level of the entire globe • what we have are smaller, politically bounded “sovereign states” - comprised of four basic things: territory with permanent population, a system of government and recognized by other foreign states • system of sovereign states, all of which are politically separate from each other, are the highest sovereign entity within their borders • foreign policy is anything that takes place beyond the boundaries of your state – inside/outside ◦ treaty of Westphalia is the moment by which the feudal system changes into territorially defined sovereign states – makes possible the idea of foreign ▪ if nothing has territorial limits then nothing is foreign • sovereignty is the order and principle to global politics – sovereignty gives shape and form to the global anarchy ◦ diplomacy is another word for negotiation between two political actors – does not presume form nor nature of those actors, can be entities other than states ◦ diplomacy is as old as communication, but foreign policy is not ▪ process towards achieving political interests – principle of self-help ▪ objective of diplomacy is the survival of the state ▪ but also increasing their power in relation to other states ▪ in one sense we know the objective of diplomacy – every variation of the national interest is going to build on increasing state's relative power • potential for coercion in diplomacy (e.g. gunboat diplomacy) – must bare in mind that negotiation is only one form of achieving objectives, the other is violence • pursuit of national interest beyond the borders through negotiation (diplomacy) or coercion (war) • contemporary FP is ◦ “concerned with explaining the behaviour of those who have the capability to exercise supreme political authority over a given set of issue areas, for a given people in a given territory” (Nossal) ▪ foreign policy can extend to all political statements or actions take n by state leaders and
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