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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

Oct 11 2012 POL 312Y1 – Canadian Foreign Policy Prof. Greaves POL 312Y1 – Canadian Foreign Policy ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Lecture 6 – Thursday, Oct 18, 2012 - The figure/stats used to observe Canada today – in 1945 Canada had the 4 th largest armed force in the world. Went from the colony to a country with one of the strongest army - In 1945, we essentially Truman (US) and Churchill (UK) (a bit of help with McKenzie King (Canada) and Stalin (Russia) came together and came with the institutions that will govern the world war. They wanted to create something that will prevent WW3. The impact it had on the composition of how politics is practiced around today – it is crucial because it is abour redesigning such an important thing. - UN had a lot of influence in this too. IMF and GAT were created, and also NATO – Military alliance that bound western world together. It shapes the global world. We can see why it matters so much to Canada. - The article this week (Stair) discussed 2 principals that underpinned the Canadian goals, with respect to understanding if Canada was actually advancing. o Middle power – this is a new idea. After the war, Canada is in a weird position because we were never in this type of situation. So we pioneered the idea that could be another category of the state – we can have category of middle power that cannot compete with great power but had assets that can be applied to international politics. We need to be able to engage with these issues. This idea was for us to acknowledge us that the great power will remain as it is, and we want to carb out for ourselves. From middle power comes the second principle of Canadian involvement: functional power o Functional power – says that state should be able to participate in international decision making based on:  1. Relative interest in a particular problem area  2. Their power to help resolve the problem. This actually expands from the idea that greet power makes all decisions, to we also need to include the states that has a lot of interest in such issues - Contrast to 2 competing factors o Europe – great power, which kept it somewhat out of war.  League of nations – failed to prevent WW2 partly because it was organized around the idea that state is state – everyone had equal parts.  Great power and small powers have different interest, so they cannot have the same opinions  Because of the new nuclear reality they realized that the
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