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POL312 Class 10 (Nov. 15, 2012)

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Political Science
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POL312 LEC 2012 11 15 Chretien-Martin Class 10 -------------------- This lecture marks the transfer from historical to contemporary Canadian political history Marks when we became politically conscious Paul Martin was in power for 2 years, and voted in, unlike other PM's talked about in last lecture Chretien's tenure was longer than every PM in post-war years, except for Trudeau Significant (1993-2003) because he was the first to be known as 1st without equals -------------------- Context: Collapse of the PC party (2 seats in 1993, down from 180 seats) = no effective opposi- tion; regional voting divides Good news for Liberal party, they won 177 seats, had no opposition in House of Com- mons 1993, saw rise of Bloc Quebecois at the national level 1993-1997, no real opposition, which meant little constraint on government's actions 1993 was in the middle of the most recent bout of a national unity crisis National unity crisis: failure of constitutional reform leads to creation of Bloc Quebecois and 1995 referendum Liberal 'Red Book' was domestic-focused; little discussion of FP gave Chretien Liberals freedom of action; Red Book was what made Liberals successful Absence of FP in Red Book was significant because once Liberals were elected, they weren't beholden to anyone in FP and had lots of freedom to shape CanFP Structural changes of post-Cold War; general triumph of democracy and US power, it would take about a decade after fall USSR to see how the new structure of the world would look -------------------- Jean Chretien born 1934 Prime Minister (Liberal) Nov 1993 - Dec 2003 'le petit gars de Shawinigan'; humble roots, lawyer, master politician Elected 1963; didn't speak English; distinguishes him from Pearson and Trudeau, learned English in order to rise and function to a certain extent in the federal govern- ment Every Liberal Cabinet from 1965-1993 (!!!); > 12 portfolios, including Parliamentary Sec- retary to Pearson; DIAND, Justice (patriation of Constitution), Finance under Trudeau; and Deputy PM under Turner Jeffrey Simpson: 'Friendly dictatorship'; his time as PM was marked by 3 consecutive majority governments; he was popular and well received, but was dictator-like for not tol- erating backtalk Protestors in the past could get close to PM Chretien, nowadays, security is tight and it's nearly impossible to get near a PM -------------------- Paul Martin, Jr. Born 1938 Prime Minister (Liberal) Dec 2003 - Feb 2006 In spring 2004, he won a minority mandate in which Canada consistently had minority governments Son of former Liberal minister, Paul Sr. Successful businessman; owner of Canada Steamship Lines Chretien-Martin rivalry (Left/Right Liberal divide); forced Chretien to retire, then dam- aged by Sponsorship Scandal, speaks to significance of national unity imperative Lost majority in 2004 then government in 2006 'Mr. Dithers' as PM (perceived inability to set priorities: The Economist), but popular and respected as Minister of Finance (1993-2002) Martin's ambition, that forced Chretien out of power through an internal revolt, caused him to be blamed for the fall of the Liberal party Restored Canada to good fiscal health -------------------- 3 Themes 1. Post-Cold War Era Unipolarity; peace dividend Washington Consensus New Insecurities; collapse of USSR meant withdrawal of support for smaller states that were previously supported by the superpowers, led to hotspots of collapsed states, emergence of new FP challenges (Somalia, Yugoslav) Peace Dividend - belief that once USSR was gone, the huge resources spent on military would be available for other things, some believed that the resources could be reinvest- ed in social programs, returned to taxpayers, etc. While practice of use of military force was the same, Harkin went back to the peace- keeping myth, Canada participated more in states as peacekeepers, even though they weren't actually Pearsonian definition of peacekeeping. These peacekeepers were led by the UN Canada had a recession in early 1990s. 1994-1995 saw growth of Canadian economy up until the 2008 economic crises Washington Consensus - pro-market, very good for Canadian economy at the time, deregulating markets, reduce size of government, allow free movement of capital (but not labour), Washington Consensus became contested and objections near the end of the 1990s No real policy change with respect to neoliberal economic policies set by Mulroney, each party in power maintained it Collapse of USSR meant absence to alternatives for Washington Consensus, golden age of globalization 1990s, a period of peace and prosperity Anti-globalization protests (ex. Seattle 1999) were seen in Canada too The processes that make us rich and powerful also make us insecure 1990s saw acquaintance to terrorism (ex. Oklahoma, etc.) What concerns USA concerns Canada, terrorism has been the single most important factor for the thickening of the US-Canada border and increased difficulty for Canadian access to US markets 'Defend against help', Canada needs to spend just as much on defence so US doesn't need to help, we just spend to satisfy US c
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