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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Simone Chambers

Conclusion and Review - Reason o Criticized the enlightenment view of reason o Holistic view of the man o Language – natural language, reason through it, those languages structure how we think o Places it in a historical context and makes it relative - Religion o Mystic metaphysics – “power” o Infused with religiosity o There is an easy going back and forth b/w religion and philosophy o In Enlightenment though, there is a clear separation - Public Sphere - Progress o Criticized the enlightenment view because it is too simplistic o The 18 cent Europe as the top culture o Every culture and every age has intrinsic value to itself o No culture is higher and better then o Cultures are like people, identities, no one is better than another o Cannot look at the history of the world from a judgmental view o Pluralism  all the different ways of human being - Rights o No against rights o Does not think talk of rights is the most important articulation of politics o Politics, not as rights, but identity based o Tied to human nature, people need families and communities and nations o Nations are defined culturally o All circles back to language - Liberty - Equality o Implicitly has a view of equality, no individual (enlightenment) o Pluralistic, of cultures o Nationalism – absent imperialism, colonialism – bellicose nationalism o All nations are equal - Fraternity o Central, does not use the term o Community – and the notion of rights o Family of connections - Authenticity o Important o Connected to being at home in your community o Having no roots, speaking 27 languages, is an unauthentic way to being o Uprooting people – inauthentic o People are shred by traditions, past, language o Trying to get in touch with your roots, though literature and art - Autonomy o Critic of autonomy (enlightenment – we should be seeking critical distance form out traditions to evaluate them, make autonomous choices) o This is impossible, because cannot step out of who you are o Kant: how do analyze reason-using reason? o Cannot understand yourself by stepping outside of who you are o 1) Possible 2) Demand to be autonomous contradict to being happy, because it is against human nature Herder - Precursor to Romanticism Enlightenment: - Intellectual movement – similarities b/w people, but many differences - Mostly philosophical, there is some spill over into art and aesthetics - Theoretical understanding and science - Main stream of western though Romanticism - Post - enlightenment - Movement, more diffuse than enlightenment - Romantic mood sweeping Europe - Greatest articulation in art, poetry, music, etc - Not political - Very influences as a counter to Enlightenment - Enlightenment – main stream to western though - Critic of Enlightenment - Has more influence in the ways we think? Faust - Want A LOT of knowledge - Sells his soul to the devil to get all the knowledge he wants - Knowledge w/o love and sentiment – useless & destructive - “Feeling is everything” - Name is but sound and smoke - Words, arguemnts, talking, books, rationality – all sound and smoke, feeling is everything - The argument is that the enl has forgoteen sentiment, passion and feeling THEME: FEELING & PASSION Contrasts – set tensions 1) Reason v nature 1. Individual a. ENL - Individual is primarily reason / Reason should rule – starts with Plato, modern Enl b. ROM - Reason suppressing passion – not good, healthy, leads to unhappiness c. People are sentimental and full of emotions; Have to understand the whole person 2. Society and politics a. ENL - World of politics was a mess, mess because soc and politics institutions developed poorly there is a lot of irrationality, injustice, etc in the institutions b. Take reason and design a better plan – constitution c. ROM - Have to look at soc & politics as organic not mechanical/ Garden – French v English 3. Environment a. ENL: want to control nature because itself if destructive, nature’s regularities are designed to destroy us, dangerous for humans b. Seek to control/ constrain and put to our own uses c. ROM: nature should inspire us / Its violence, too / Should help us rise about petty self interests, ability to inspire 2) Mechanical v organic - ENL - The universe is a clock - ROM - Organic metaphor, everything soc and politics - If you take it apart might not be able to put it back together - How can you change the world – has to be conservative – incrementally - Mechanical view – revolution 3) Progress v simplicity - Theme seen in Rousseau - Things would be great if you got rid of certain things - ROM - Modern society is not all good, there are a lot of downsides of progress - Simpler times and place - Middle period, just came into societies – small groups, everyone knows each other, people are not fake yet – the way they are in full fledged society - Nostalgia for the middle ages, the simplicity, the societal relations based on honor, chivalry, etc 4) Interest v passion - ENL - Development of commerce and self interest – calming effect - People should be encouraged to be self interested - People just acting on their interest - This makes it so that wild passions are not good for business - For Adam Smith, the best citizen is the shop keeper, not the dualist, knight, not the man of passion, but a bourgeois - Corner stone of civilization and progress - ROM - The idea of the whole world of shop keepers is boring, does not demand any greatness of the human beings - There is an attack on the mediocrity of “shop keepers” 5) Objectives v subjective - ENL - Wants objective, scientific picture of the world / What is going in the objective world 6) Abstract individual v concrete individual - ROM - Specific individual and the their thoughts 7) Intellect and sentiment - Merry Shelly – Frankenstein - Intellect without sentiment is not good - Enl hopes for the intellect 8) Utility v Aesthetics - Aesthetics approach in the rom movement  art - In Burke  Aesthetic of politics – what is that art gives you? (Expressive, makes you feeling thinks) when read do not feel things, but think things - Politics should make you feel things - Politics is about being useful 9) Autonomy v Belonging - In Herder, Rom, two visions of cos and nationalism 10) Cosmopolitanism v nationalism - Cosmopolitanism – human rights – universal for all human beings - Connection to people, lang, something specific – politics based on sentiment and feeling - Hard to love humanity as such, do not love it, because not connected to it Major differences - Blake – destructive powers of the tiger - Darwin – earth – amazing creature which does things for us EDMUND BURKE 1729 to 1797 - Irish, conflicted
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