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POL326Y1- Lecture 2- Sept. 18, 2012.docx
POL326Y1- Lecture 2- Sept. 18, 2012.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Arnd Jurgensen

POL326Y1- Lecture 2- Sept. 18, 2012  Over the last several centuries threats towards order in political communities such as Great Britain or the United States came from internal upheavals, civil wars, conflicts between groups within that society; had very little to do with outside invasion hence allocation within the society became more necessary in order to assure stability within those communities.  Schimidt: German history of upheaval but from external sources, various principalities made up Germany and their competing interests. Opposed to US and Britain they prioritized and put resources into external security o Therefore David Easton who advocates allocation also recognises the argument made by Locke with regards to the necessity to protect a state from threats abroad before property rights domestically can be protected (Second Treatise of Government)…correlates with Schmidt’s view o Schmidt argues that at the core of politics decisions is what collectivise can a peaceful state coexist with, what other collectivises with regards to their interests and self- definition are incompatible with their own security and survival  Confrontation of the cold war can be understood as a concern of how each of the states allocates its resources, Communism threatened the survival of the US and capitalism and vice versa with capitalism in Russia  Although US Foreign policy is different from other public policies in the sense that it involves actions beyond domestic affairs, they are nonetheless actions taken by the state geared toward the external environment  Kenneth Wall: Why is war re-occurrent? o Focus on individuals, ex: WW2 and the peculiarities of individuals such as Hitler and in other instances Mousilini and Stalin (Some argue that regardless of individuals the events which occurred in history would be remained, other personalities would have risen)…this applies to the decision to invade Iraq, it could be argued that had other individuals been involved other than Bush, Rumsfield, Chenney, etc o The State itself: Refers to the overall notion of democratic peace, specifically democracies do not make war on other democracies. The internal makeup of that state is important in terms of foreign policy and the likelihood of the state to take up arms against other nations. o International System and imbalances within it which explains the prevalence of war and the foreign policies of governments based on the threats they face in that international setting. Theories of the State - Liberal/Pluralist o (Ex: David Easton, Locke, Rawls) See politics as allocation o Social Contract used to explain what states are, and the process through which they are created. Social Contract between the governed and the governing, and the basic rules and limits of the game regarding the competition for political power and influence. o Strongly influenced by Anglo-Saxon tradition, Great Britain, Magna Carta: An agreement between citizens and government about how they want to be ruled, foundation of modern Britain and spells out the limits of political authority’s legitimate action (Habeas Corpeus). In the US the Declaration of Independence plays this role and it spells out explicitly what the state can and can’t do, the government is meant to protect these basic rights (life, liberty and pursuit of happiness) and when governments themselves violate these rights it becomes illegitimate and it justifies revolution to remove a now illegitimate government o The constitution forces the state to stay within those limits o The framers of the US Constitution were heavily influenced by the Wealth of Nations (early capitalism) and sought to create something that did not rely on those who are in charge, in fact they recognized that everyone was in it for self-interest, similar to the market mechanism this is a system in which ambition checks ambition.  Invisible hand of the market: basic supply and demand  Checks and balances which balance the ambition of others o Framers thought that the bill of rights would violate the freedom of speech entrenched in the constitution o What liberalist and pluralists see in the state is a neutral entity in which groups within the state complete to create policy, the state is affected by the different inputs from groups or individuals in society who try to impact the policy of the state through which they encounter other groups of different interests (keeping everyone in check and having the state as a neutral entity) The state is a dependent variable in which there are external influencing factors, don’t look to the state look to the groups in order to understand current/dominating policy - Marxist (Instrumentalist/Structuralist) o Marx: State is an entity through which the
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