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Lecture 6

POL326Y1- Lecture 6- October 16, 2012.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Arnd Jurgensen

POL326Y1- Lecture 6- October 16, 2012 The United States has represents a rejection of European colonialism exemplified by the revolution, this is partially true. Understanding the nature of the colonialism which created the US and understanding that rejection we must make reference to the work of Emmauel Wallerstein… ‘World Systems Theory’  Since 1492 the globe has been functioning as a world system, this is concluded by applying systems theory to social science and economics  Systems theory: complex entity elements are interconnected…changes ultimately transform the entire whole o In world history this did not exist til 1492, prior to that humans lived in distinct entities with small connections…actions in one part of the world had no impact on the other part of the world (Collapse of the Chinese dynasty did not affect Western European empire) o This changed as trade increased…trade routes were established with exposure to products of other cultures o Trade routes led to the discovery of new lands and the discovery transformed the Western hemisphere and the rest of the world staring with Western Europe  Important contributor to the industrial revolution in Western Europe o Wallerstein: colonialism was best understood as a search by European societies for lands that were rich enough to be exploited but weak enough to be dominated…Eastern societies were too hard to dominate  Western Hemisphere was the ‘jackpot’ it was difficult to dominate East Asian and India because they had developed societies, Africa had diseases that Europeans had no immunity too. The advantage the Euros had in the western hemisphere is that they were ‘dirtier’ (literally) therefore over generations they developed sorts of immunities that westerners did not have…within first period of contact 85-95% of westerners died and their civilizations had collapsed when the Europeans came to conquer their resources o ‘Chain reaction of industrialization’ merchants got around the guilds through putting out system: peasants households were inefficient, work hard only during harvest time they were ideal during winter months. Consequently they introduced technological division of labour in which the peasants who did not have skills did not require them necessarily, just be able to complete the individual steps…mechanical loop, jenny spinner, sewing machine. Increasing mechanism pressure to create factory which needed a power source (water wheels, treadmills)  Colonialism changed for the Portuguese and Spanish (as a reaction to the exhaustive power of plundering) Too many nobles, however there is no legal right to divide property therefore Latin American served as land given to the lesser nobles who were not the eldest son. This allowed for the colonizers to create plantations under the authority of the noble and develop a triangle trade o How was the US effected: Lesser nobles were given enormous land titles to develop plantations by the British, they tended to prefer the importation of African slaves because native American slaves were very uncooperative (would committee suicide)…produce cotton, sugar, tobacco all of which high demand in Europe. This did not work well in N.US because it was too cold to grow cotton and tobacco, but there was an abundance of wood, therefore N.US was inhabited by l
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