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POL326Y Lecture May 13.docx

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Political Science
Arnd Jurgensen

POL326Y Lecture May 13/2013 Introduction Midterm/Exams • Identification o 6 terms, explain 4 • Essay o Answer 1 of 2 (midterm) o Answer 2 of 3 (final) o Broad themes  Explain/demonstrate understanding  Understanding of larger concepts  Demonstrate big picture concepts Introduction to US Foreign Policy: • American foreign policy has had a crucial impact on the nature of LatinAmerica o As well as other regions of the world o Western Europe,Asia, Middle East,Africa, etc. • US emerged as global hegemon o Impact of US foreign policy on the globe has only increased o What shapes US foreign policy is crucial to understanding international politics as a whole TheoreticalAspects of POL326Y • US foreign policy bridges two subdivisions in political science o These two subdivisions have to extremely different approaches to understanding foreign policy o There is no dominant paradigm  Competing paradigms ask contending questions o David Easton  What is politics?  Answer: • Politics = allocation • Allocation= who gets what, when and how.  Easton argues that any political society has to deal with that core question  That allocation process refers not only to who gets what when and how in terms of desired goods but rather dis-valued aspects of our social existence (work, taxes, military service)  Argues that not all allocations that take place within a society are properly political  Societies can deal with allocation by: tradition, exchange and command  Tradition- the way that most societies prior to modern age dealt with allocation within their society (feudalism, caste system, etc.) • Determined by birth • Based on consensus (everyone agrees that the social order is determined by divine right, etc.)  Exchange- a means of allocation in society, most allocation is determined by the market • What you have or what is allocated to you depends on what you have to exchange on that market • Skills that are crucial to the market vs. unskilled workers • Wealth that is crucial to the market  Command- neither tradition nor command as means of allocation are actually political • Tradition rests on consensus o Therefore not enforced against the will of the unwilling individual o Exchanges in the market place inherently involve a relationship with equality  It is not based on force or on coercion  Command, however is. o Politics is dependent on those allocations that occur though command. • Command are only political if they involve a wide context and is enforceable through the unique method of physical coercion or violence o Amonopoly of legitimate use of force, coercion and violence (Weber) o Never positive attributes of a society o Much of this force, etc. is implicate, not explicate  Normally voluntarily done  Most observe laws voluntarily o This definition of politics represents the consensus of those that study comparative politics o Underlies the definition offered in the textbook o Politics is about different groups of individuals competing in a particular society to achieve their desired ends  Does not carry much weight in other areas of political science where other visions have presided o Karl Schmitt  1920s Germany  “The Concept of Politics”  Tried to deal with the problem that defined politics as the realm of the state and defined the state of the political entity • Circular • Problematic  Had to do with the predominate liberal prejudices of his compatriots at the time which couldn’t face up to the core of the issue  Schmitt argues that US vs. the OTHER defines politics • Friend vs. foe  The core of politics in any political community is that politics is the process of deciding which societies we can co-exist with and which we can not • If one nation acts as an enemy then we must also act likewise  Politics is about survival  Politics is existential • It cannot be related in anyway to ethics or morality • Cannot armed conflict is a discipline of itself • This is imposed on
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