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Lecture 4

POL328Y1 Lecture 4: Nehru's India

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Political Science
Kanta Murali

POL328 Week 4: Politics and Government in South Asia Nehru’s India • India in 1947 o Freedom through national movements and independence struggle • Nehru and his background o Differences with Ghandi ▪ Modernity • Strongly wedded for western technology, Ghandi was more skeptical of western civilization altogether • Fundal ideology was very traditional ▪ Industrialization • Vary naturally he buys into Ghandi’s philosophy but they were different in ideological terms • Nehru believed that the state can be the fundamental force that would achieve industrialization in independence India • Believed in the power of technological progress in industrialization whereas Ghandi liked the small scale of village production ▪ Political arrangement • Nehru was supporter of liberal western style of democracy • Ghandi was more decentralized of village republics where village councils will be elected • Nehru was the admirer of the soviet union and attempted to place some type of mix capitalism and socialism which he calls the “third way” o Socialist leanings and the “third way” ▪ Both wedded to the idea of national unity and nationalism but fundamentally wedded to the idea of unify India and this transform into secularism in independent India ▪ Emphasize sovereignty as well • Competing visions at the time of independence o Elite differences at the time of independence ▪ Expressed through the Constitutional Assembly debates o Range of ideologies in the Congress ▪ Excluding the extreme right and left ▪ An umbrella party that represented a variety of diverse ideology ▪ Party of diverse ideologies and these ideologies came during the Constituent Assembly debate • In 1946, they were an elected body that were tasked to write the constitution of India ▪ So who made up the Constituent Assembly? • Most of the members were members of the Congress • In many ways it reflected the internal diversity of the congress, have some representation of minority and class but at the time was upper liberal class dominated body • Proportional representation of lawyers ▪ Some key concepts of Assembly Debate: • Federal provisions • Fundamental rights o Rights to association o In the end, this came out as a liberal constitution that had a substantial set of protection of civil rights and political liberties and rights of minorities and marginalized groups o Groups were historically marginalized and came to a compromise of understanding on affirmative action  reservation in government jobs • Rights of minorities, Dalits, Adivasis ▪ Issue of national language was most controversial • If they were will a national language • People in the south east and parts of the west speaks a variety of languages that were variety of different scripts from Hindi • Whether Hindi should be adopted as the national language, but tends to break apart the National assembly • Compromise in 1947 o Hindi would be officially as the national language but English would be used for the language of government • 1947, this two fold arrangement would remain in place until 1965 to give the others to learn Hindi and make it the national language • Hindi getting national language remains still today • B.R Ambedkar and the India Constitution o Key architect of India constitution o Father of the lower class movement in independence India o He fought for a variety of lower class courses, and with Ghandi on political arrangement on surrounding caste o Known as the key movement of political and civil movements in the constitution • Central ideas of Nehru’s India o Democracy ▪ Parliamentary democracy with universal suffrage ▪ For many scholars, it wasn’t until 1964, civil right movement, universal suffrage came into course ▪ End of WW2 adopted universal suffrage, at the time was at risk ▪ Congress during its independence struggle agree idea of democracy of universal suffrage so that was adopted in the constitution and the assembly o Sovereignty ▪ This tended to inform much of India’s policy and self-sufficiency ▪ There has to be a certain degree that would inform foreign economic policy o Secularism ▪ In particular in the Indian state, it means equal distinct to all religions ▪ National movement was strong with national unity ▪ Secularism was taken to mean religion in any way will not influence or enter the street o Federalism ▪ Came out through the CAD [assembly debate] ▪ Congress at the top, below them were provincial leaders and councils so in some ways, it was not surprising for it to be form o Weak commitment to socialism ▪ Nehru was in contact with the group known as the India socialist ▪ Congress movement itself did have a variety of group including industrialize or capitalist which were powerful and Ghandi’s activities were banned by Indians themselves ▪ Despite Nehru’s commitment to socialism, the actual commitment on the ground were much weaker because of the compromises and because of the various sections of the congress o All came to inform continued with variety of new interpretations • Key issues and tasks o Undertaken during Nehru’s time in office o Despite challenges in 1947, stability and leadership at the top for many explain why both the state and democracy took root in this key period o State Consolidation ▪ Established the writ of Indian state • Armed forces and bureaucracy • A monopoly as well as providing basic services and policies and in that sense, this occurred in Indian during Nehru’s time • Distinguishes developing countries that have been stable • Army that British put in place continued until the war finished and this became evident as one of the first wars in Pakistan in 1947 • Whether demo should be disbanded or broken down • But during colonial period was efficient in variety of administrative task and continued with the same military structure • In that sense there was a clear continuing in the colonial period but these structures get consolidated ▪ Integration of princely states • Into the Indian union • Princes and rulers had a fair degree of autonomy, but country foreign affairs and foreign working were left to native princes and rulers • Native princes and rulers were a mixed bunch • Many often spent their revenue on variety of wasteful activities, luxuries • Some were generally liberal and many of the spent on their own personal life • Congress had to get them to sign the instrument of accession • 565 odd state had to occur in the 3 month period before independence before partition was announced • Princes were given composition that were called a sum of money Indians gave them for signing the instrument of accession • Equally where there is more stubborn, two sta
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