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Lecture 9

POL328Y1 Lecture 9: Political Change in Pakistan

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Political Science
Kanta Murali

POL328 – Week 9 Lecture 10 Part 1: Political change in Pakistan Zulfiqar Ai Bhutto’s regime • Patterns of civil-military relations o Won the election in Pakistan in 1970s o He began Pakistan’s nuclear program expected that this might give civilian governance power over the army o Populous measures of variety of leftist policies • Islamic socialism o Outlined a vision of Pakistan as Islamic and as a socialist state o “Roti, Kapra, Makan” (bread, clothing and shelter) o Variety of populist measures o PPP as a vehicle of patronage • Issues of provincial autonomy o Provincial tensions that increase an anxious growing environment Zia ul-Haq’s military regime • Opposition to Bhutto • Army regains control in 1977 • Zia Ul-Haq comes to power o Bhutto arrested and later executed o Zia in power till 1988 • Islam, state institutions and society o Jinnah’s vision and formal role of religion in state o Reinterpretation of Jinnah’s call and ideological shift o Religion laws and institutions ▪ Practices in army ▪ Introduction of Islamic courts and laws ▪ Emphasis in educational curriculum ▪ Levies based on religious principles ▪ Local Islamic networks • Grew in this period • Link between Zia and religious parties in Pakistan grew ▪ Sectarian tensions • Allied with parties such as the Jamaat-i-Islami • Divide between Westernized elite and more religious sections o Continues to plead out in Pakistan’s politics overtime • He had an ultimate vision that referred significantly to the leaders that came before him • He aimed to reconfigure the relationship between religion and institution of the state • This was a period where certain institutions in the state, networks essentially the links between religion and certain religious networks come together • Period that becomes more Islamized • Proximity with the US and role of Afghanistan • Return to democracy (1988-1998) o Zia’s death in 1988 and return to democracy ▪ Elections were re-held in Pakistan o Political instability ▪ Elections in 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997 ▪ Governance and corruption issues ▪ Failed to establish any lavage of civilian governance over the army ▪ Both were accused and involved in corruption in issues • Unstable, because civilian governments were not able to establish their authority o Army influence remained powerful o Civilian government were unable to establish over the army Musharraf’s regime: background • Social and political unrest; economic slowdown • Growing base of militant Islam • Nuclear tests in 1998 o India tested nuclear devices and Pakistan followed o These nuclear test attracted variety of international sanctions in this period o Foreign and new trade in this period • Army regains control after Kargil in 1999 • Musharraf’s 1999 coup • Period when Us is observing significant amount of lavage • He takes over power, suggestion that he would bring economic change and stability • He claims that the government takes over his life, he takes over power because of that • And suggest that the army would be able stability • This was used to justify taking over power, also in Bangladesh • Pakistan under Musharraf o 9/11 and frontline in the war on terror o Pakistan’s alliance with US and effect on domestic politics ▪ Internal tensions • Period when Pakistan is growing battles within internal groups, which leads to rise of internal tension and violence within the country • Internally, many of these groups are engaged in growing act, violence within Pakistan itself ▪ Rise of extremist groups and violence • The army in particular o Musharraf’s rule ▪ 2001 names himself President while remaining army chief ▪ 2002 referendum gave him an extension of 5 year term in office ▪ Had himself re-elected by national and provincial assemblies in 2007 • Judiciary as well as legal movement would come o Tension and violence in 2007 ▪ Growing violence ▪ Suspension of Chief Justice and lawyers movement in 2007 • Opposition movement against Musharraf’s regime • But he wanted elections to have civilians vote him to come back to power ▪ Bhutto and Sharif return from exile in 2007 ▪ Bhutto assassinated during election campaign in December 2007 ▪ PPP victory in 2008 and Musharraf resigns as president later that year Post 2008 • Civilian governments since 2008 o 2008 elections In the aftermath of Bhutto’s assassination o PPP governments led by Gilani and Ashraf (2008-2013) ▪ First civilian government to complete a full term in office ▪ High voter turnout o PML-N government led by Nawaz Sharif o Recent developments ▪ PTI-led protests (2014) ▪ Launched a major protest movement against the Nawaz Sharif government for rigged elections in 2013 ▪ Protest ended in December 2014 ▪ The army’s role and leverage • Since the summer of 2014, the army have taken offense in the north west • Recap o The idea and formation of Pakistan • Key themes o Challenges of state-building ▪ Once Pakistan have been formed, there were different use of the design of the state and it took a long period of time for the constitution to take in place o Military and civilian governments ▪ Role of army o Role of religion o Managing diversity ▪ Caused a challenge in the form of secessionist conflicts in South Asia o External influence ▪ Translated into internal tensions/contradictions between the army and of society itself Part 2: political change in Bangladesh • Independence in 1971 • Events of 1971 has been controversial • In 1971 East Pakistan fought over Bangladesh in 1971 • The key figure was Mujib in 1972 • His early promise would soon weigh in a couple years despite putting in frameworks • In 1975, Mujib along with rest of his family were assassinated • Between 1977-1990 Bangladesh would be under military control • Bangladesh would return to civilian governance in 1990 and two main parties in Bangladesh that Mujib found in 1972 was the key party in Bangladesh • Since 1990, Bangladesh had civilian governance but democracy was very thin and not consolidated o Democracy was characterized between the two main parties, as a winner take all democracy in a sense that whichever of the two main
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