Class Notes (837,023)
Canada (510,044)
POL328Y1 (17)
Lecture 13

POL328Y1 Lecture 13: State Institutions and Political Parties in India
Premium

6 Pages
46 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Political Science
Course
POL328Y1
Professor
Kanta Murali
Semester
Fall

Description
POL328 – January 11, 2016 State Institutions and political Parties in India • look at top-down aspects related to the state and what they can tell us about authoritarianism in South Asia • How bottom-up level affects ways South Asia functions politically • State institutions o parliament, bureaucracy, federalism, Supreme Court • Political parties o key concepts and theories o evolution of the party system in India o key national and regional parties in India o why parties matter in India ▪ for democratic functioning o critical issues State institutions in India • Indian democracy and the role of institutions o parliament, bureaucracy, federalism o growing role of Supreme Court and Election Commission o Evaluating institutional strength • Whoever wins the most vote in the constituency wins an election • The legislature itself is divided with lower house, and upper house • In terms of the two houses of parliament, the upper house is meant to represent houses of the state and lower house is represent the population • The lower house is directly elected that has slightly greater legislative powers and lowering bills [taxation] o the formal aspect of federalization tend to be somewhat centralize • Parliament: Trends o Membership and composition ▪ political composition and re-election chances in Lok Sabha ▪ contradictory trends in terms of society has incorporated marginalized groups ▪ greater representation of marginalized groups over time ▪ increase of “criminalization” of Indian politics ▪ growing power of money o Earlier time was an elite democracy o Become much more diverse in which social group is represented ▪ silent group in the 1990s ▪ lower class and middle class is represented more than early times in Indian democracy o Decline of Congress Dominance ▪ minority and coalition governments between 1989 and 2014 ▪ fragmentation and contention in policy process ▪ most bills introduced by government • money is a big influence in Parliament over time ▪ the first early parliament from 1950s and 60s was dominant by Congress, but overtime, coalition government from 1989, we see more regional parties play active roles in parliament ▪ often bills were introduced by the opposition ▪ overtime, the governing party tend to use it as political agenda ▪ when you look at functioning institutions, parliament ends up being very one side of who was able to pass bills o Parliament practice and functioning ▪ decline in norms and practice • Nehru and parliamentary practice • walkouts and disruptions; growing stalemate o norm of practices ▪ decline in quality of debate • disruptions • television coverage and ‘playing to the gallery’ ▪ government interference ▪ ability to hold executive in check Bureaucracy • Indian administrative Service (IAS) at the apex and state-level bureaucracies below o Differences in efficiency at various levels • IAS o Heart of government machinery ▪ cadre strength ▪ spread at central, state and district levels o Recruitment through an exam-based system ▪ general training • where bureaucratic as thought of leading general skills ▪ training and apprenticeship ▪ the numbers of those who applied to the IAS every year tends to be fairly large ▪ about 600,000 applicants wrote the exam • Key current issues o political interference o quality and performance over time ▪ variation in state capacity ▪ state capacity in India tends to be very uneven ▪ this functioning starts to decline once we leave the level of IAS o state bureaucracies and patronage Federalism • Federal system o 3 tier system; centre and states are main levels o 29 states, 7 union territories o states are broadly organized on linguistic lines o formation of new states ▪ linguistic reorganization under Nehru ▪ creation of new states after 2000 • Separation of powers o union list, State list and Concurrent list o key state government areas: Education, agriculture, law and order, police • Fiscal federalism o revenue sources of state limited; centre has greater powers of taxation ▪ central Indian which has most powers of taxation ▪ at the lower levels, the taxes that are exercise tend to be more limited ▪ the states in term of development function tends to help law and order but ability to generate is limited o system of transfer of funds to states • President’s rule o provision in the constitution o gives the centre the ability to dismiss an elected government in case of failure in law of order Indian Federalism How centralized is Indian federalism? • formal features point to considerable centralization o e.g., President’s rule, fiscal federalism, role of Rajya Sabha • politics and phases of federalism • The Supreme Court and judicial activism o growing role of Supreme Court over time o parliamentary system but judicial review o public interest litigations [PILs] ▪ role in environmental, human rights, corruption, governance, poverty alleviation, education ▪ came in 1993 ▪ similar to a class action but doesn’t have to be brou
More Less

Related notes for POL328Y1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit