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POL345Y1 (25)
Lecture

Lecture 5

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL345Y1
Professor
Emanuel Adler
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 5 – 11/10/11 There have been Jews in Palestine since 135AD, when 600,000 Jews were killed and the rest went into exile – Pekiin is one community where Jewish people lived undisturbed – At the times of the crusades, only a few thousand Jews lived in Palestine In 1800s, the were 6000 Jews in four cities – Saled, Tiberias, Hebron and Jerusalem – due to the protection that the Ottoman Empire offered to Europeans in the 19 century, the amount of Jews Palestine rose to 17,000 by 1856 – Philanthropists began to buy land for Jewish use – The first aaliyah between 1882 and 1891 raised Jewish population in Palestine in 50,000 – During the second aaliyah a further 30000 Jews came to Palestine, including Ben-Gurion The foundations for the modern state of Israel were laid before the first world war – many more towns and settlements began to spring up Zionism’s goal was the ingathering of the exiles and land redemption – In 1901, the Jewish national fund was established to purchase land from Arabs – The first kibbutz was created in Deganya in 1901 – The city of Tel-Aviv was created in the same year Leaders such as Ben-Gurion began to put labour socialism at the head of the Zionist movement – Weissman organised political Zionism in the diaspora For the settlements, the yishuv organised the hashomer (the defence) – the ingredients for nation building were there The British High Commisioner, McMahon, promised Husein, the Hashemite sheriff, to promote the independence of the Arabs – There are still debates over whether he promised the whole of Palestine – McMahon wanted the Arabs to help the British in WW1 One year later, the British and French agreed to divide the Middle East into two spheres of influence (Sykes Picot Agreement) – In the meantime, Jews lobbied the British Empire, who owed to Weissman as a scientist and who wanted Jewish support in Palestine – November 1917, Balfour Declaration: British government views with favour the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine – Jewish used this as a modern basis for their right to return to Israel At the same time, Weissman tried to engage the Arabs and win their favour – Faisal, Hashemite leader, was able to reach an ephemeral agreement The clash between two rights began to take shape – This led to many riots in which Jews were killed The British were granted the mandate of Palestine in 1920 – As the violence were taken place and as Jews kept coming, the British decided to put a halt to Jewish immigration – The Jews fought politically and also tried to smuggle in immigrants The British recognised the Jewish community in Israel as a legal entity (Knesset Israel) and allowed it to select government bodies – They already organised themselves into a quasi-state – Histradut: labour union (1920) and Jewish Agency (1929) In 1919, a national assembly with 311 members was created and so was an executive that was called the national committee that was able to run the Yishuv – The British mandate requires the creation of a Jewish agency to serve as a link between the Yishuv and the British Empire – Until 1929, the role was filled by the WZO – Histradut became the seed from which the state was born, it was much more than a labour union – It was a statebuilding device that helped build the m
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