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Lecture 2

POL356H1 Lecture 2: Sept 19

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Nelson Wiseman

September 19 2017, Lecture #2 • Beginnings of Politics o cant talk about parties until the 1880s and 1890s as they did not exist o fluid motion when a party starts and what it is o strong statist orientation of Canadian politics o before elections the governor made the decisions o church and state were linked and very strong o the British took over in the Quebec act in 1774 o still no elections in Quebec – the place they were now in power of o the French saw what was going on in the southern colonies – has elections and taxes o the loyalists came in – 1791 – coming from the US – has elected assemblies, elections and town hall meetings – constitutions act allowed for elections for back then lower Canada o British like the French wanted strong control and feared elections o Those who were elected in the provinces that did have elections had a lot of power ▪ Apart of the legislative councils – appointed positions o In the 1840s 50s, Canada argued for a hierarchical house not elected o Governor controlled revenues – duties on imported goods o Loyalists wanted elections in the 70s – accepted the strong executive control to avoid a revolution o Executive and legislative council were appointed by the governor, the people you voted for did not have the power to change things o British and the US had a war in 1812 o Durham was the governor of the entire BNA o The ministry was in control if the supreme court justice minister was not around to swear in a governor o The rebellions established an oligarchy ▪ Wanted democratic rule o British wanted to colonists to take more control of themselves o Durham suggested that the colonies get a responsible government – voting system o In the 1830s – the reason the British wanted to get rid of the colonies was because of politics back home o 1848 – all Canadian colonies had a responsible government o English and French Problem – Durham said the French needed to assimilate and be English but they outnumbered the English and did not want to become English o 1840 – lower and upper Canada because provinces and territories o fontain – pushed for responsible government o this worried the established oligarchy o at a coalition government right now with the French and English butting heads ▪ this then caused dual ministers, a French and English minister for finance etc o dualism starts to rise in Canada o conservative and liberal parties in Ontario and Quebec o The reformers started to gain more power o 1828 – significant power attained o patronage was vital o 1840s 50s and 60s, technology came to play o money in politics became a thing o a string centralized government was vital as Canada was very spread out ▪ defense ▪ social stability ▪ economic development o the older governing group believed in nepotism and that those who rule should be people from established, respected and wealthy family o reformers/liberals were more open – had better relations with the US • Rise of National Parties o Couldn’t really talk about national parties before 1878 o The conservatives were successful because o Could not think about party politics the way we do now ▪ We do not have simultaneous elections ▪ Had provincial and federal election at the same time o Canada’s first elections was held in 3 provinces over 3 different months o Each constituent chose when they wanted to vote, Toronto and York voted 6 weeks apart ▪ Mackenzie deliberately chose when he wanted elections where his party was in favour, those not in favour would vote when it wouldn’t matter to him o The PM appointed many people to the cabinet, but if he appointed less, he would have more portfolios for himself o The committees were unfair as th
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