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September 24 lecture.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

September 24, 2013 Lecture  Membership of the European union is open to “any European state which respects the values referred to in article 2 and is committed to promoting them” (TEU article 49). Those article 2 values are “respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rules of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities.”  Key question with EU is who can join  If your not a potential member of the eu then you can join the European Neighbour Policy ENP  EU – European Union  NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Org’tn  Council of Europe  OSCE – Organization for Security Operation of Europe, legacy of CSCE – includes countries outside of EU (Including Canada, US, Russia, other former USSR states). Main role currently is protection of human minority rights and ensuring free and fair elections  Plus the IFI’s (Intern’tl Financial Inst’tns) and civil society actors  Types of leverage  Passive: destination of Europe post 1989 became the EU – it was a return and therefore became the ultimate foreign policy priority – not deliberate policies – based solely on the attraction of the EU and the high costs of exclusion  EU is worlds largest trading block – once your embedded in the EU law you become a magnet for foreign direct investment bc it provided protection  Active Leverage  Central europe and balkans have no foreign policy, they saw the EU as their way to rejoin Europe  Active- Benefits create incentives - Do certain things and you’ll get certain things ie. Money  Conditionality – Key to the whole process,  Without the EU incentivizing then they wouldn’t have done this  When people talk about the transition nobody mentions how revolutionary it was  Focused on creating civil society, market, rebuilding infrastructure  Rebuilding infra was important for rebuilding linkages between people – broke the barriers that existed between states  Before 1989 you could not travel, once visa restrictions were rem
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