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Lecture November 19th.docx

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Political Science
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Lecture November 19 th  Citizenship, immigration and politics of Immigrant Integration o If the nation state secures the rights of citizens, then surely it is a necessity; but if the nation-state relies on nationalism and invariably produces massive numbers of stateless people, it clearly needs to be opposed, then what, if anything, serves as its alternative? – Judith butler o Think about protection of rights predicated on us vs them logic o Do we need to be exclusionary when defining rights  History of waves of migration, multi-culturalism  Citizenship o way of organizing relationship between the people and the state o organizing relationship between people o belonging/participating to a community o connected to issues of access power rights and obligation  rights: refer to basic and fundamental entitlements that all citizens enjoy automatically and equally by virtue o 3 types: civil (freedom of assembly, freedom of speech, worship, movement, protection from discrimination, etc. – negative freedoms/rights bc they spell out what cannot be done to you, broadest rights, the states cannot impede on these rights, the state has to assist you with these rights), social (economic/welfare rights- ie. minimum wage, state assisted healthcare), political (ie. Right to vote, run for political office, belong to party) o is there a hierarchy of rights? Civil rights are automatically applied to those who enter any country. People have to wait the longest for the political rights.  Is there something special about political rights? They give you a voice so they are most important, bc you can think whatever you want but you cannot voice your opinion  Are rights costly? We don’t pay for rights. o Rights are like lighthouses bc you don’t pay for them but anyone on the water can see the light o Civil rights are the closest to the light houses o Welfare provisions attach to individuals- you can restrict access o Political rights require resources – covered under infrastructure – most costly  Who gets these rights? o Historically citizenship was restricted to landed property males o There is an expansionary thrust in rights that works on 2 planes: 1) horizontally it expands to more categories of people 2) vertically it deepens the degree of protections/rights o History of rights is history of contestation and struggle  Access to citizenship/rights (2 ways to acquire) o Birthright 1) Ius soli: basis of birth in a given territory 2) ius sanguinis: awarded through parentage o naturalization: demands application and approval of appropriate auth’s; subject to conditions o in many countries all 3 ways of gaining citizenship are present, in most countries there are 2 ways – more complicated  In the EU o Most people achieve their citizenship through birth- mitigated by naturalization o Many changes in how states grant citizenship since the 80’s o ISanguinis is present in all states in EU, ISoli is present in 19 states  Countries have more than 1 way of granting citizenship  The way we grant citizenship changes over time  Seems to move towards greater inclusiveness, but there are increased efforts to prevent people from coming in the first place  Foreigners rights o Some rights attached to foreigners who work/live legally (and in some cases illegally) in the EU but are not citizens  Who guarantees rights? o A community decides how it wants to structure relationship between citizens and the state o Enshrines these rights in law and establishes ongoing inst’tns of protection and enforcement o It decides how to finance these rights o Engages in an ongoing convo as to content, scope and cost of rights  The EU – rights operate within state boundaries and are protected in the states – may be covered under international laws but they enter in those laws willingly in the EU  The eu doesn’t guarantee any rights that aren’t already enshrined in the member states const’tns - nation state citizenship offers fuller rights than if you are a foreigner in the EU  Assumptions of the above model o Takes the existence of borders for granted (makes them desirable) o Suggests that states and rights are organically linked o In emphasizing birth as main mode of granting citizenship, it sneaks in the assumption that citizenship and nationhood are somehow joined  Primary relationship of people and the state: EU citizenship is derivative of state citizen
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