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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 March 20:27.doc

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Political Science

March 20 2012Table of contents 1Regularities in innovation2National systems of innovation NSI3Regional innovations systems RIS4Regional innovation quo vadis5Institutional arenas of varieties of capitalismIRole of institutions organizations and culture RLiberal vs coordinated market economiesL1Regularities in innovationRHow to measure innovationHInput measures RD expensesemploymentetcIOutput measures patent applicationsgrowthetc not all industries patent Different countries have different patent practices If you compare numbers in the US and Japan Japan has waaay higher numbersJBUT these measure only a small proportion of innovation BWhich processes influence innovationWProduction of new knowledgePTransformation of existing knowledge TAdjustments to market changesAStructures influencing the production of knowledgeSIndustrial RD in largefirm laboratories does their importance increase as some would suggestw1Regularities in innovationRTechnological convergencevertical integration convergence serves to strengthen competence developmentcIndustryuniversity linkages RD interaction is often limiteduHeterogeneity of innovation by industryfirm typeetcHChallenges of organizing corporate innovationCMatching technology with market needs coevolution of technologiesorganizational practicesmarkets requiredpRadical changes cause intrafirm tensionsrestructuring to identify appropriate areas gatekeepers are important aConflicts between RDengineering and finance departmentsTechnological possibilities should not drive production because you need to develop a market needs to be a coevolution of productionconsumption There are constant changes in the environment and its very dangerous not to actively observe these changes and react to them because if you miss out on these you can end up in a lockin situation A large organization you might have people who recognize certain developments but they might not be able to convince other places of the firm c1Regularities in innovationRTypes of innovation systemsTTechnologicalsectoral innovation systems create industrialvalue chain legaciesTNational systems of innovation NSINRegional innovation systems RISRMetropolitancityregion innovation systemsM2National systems of innovation NSI
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