Class Notes (835,342)
Canada (509,116)
POL380H1 (14)

Environment & security.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Political Science
John Haines

3/26/2012 3:48:00 PM March 22, 2012 Environment and Security  Widespread acknowledgement of the climate change Is a relatively new phenomenon  Local global policy, power politics in a classic sense and construction of a int’l global norm  Constructing inequality and injustice, responsibilities  Some states are spending billions to deal with climate change and preserve energy to cope  A target is not a policy, it is an easy way to get an agreement like Copenhagen  It was a great failure, lack of consensus  Complexity is due to winners and losers, even though it should affect everyone in the same way, so lack of consensus doesn’t bring states together to adopt policy  China has began to develop climate change policy  Asymmetry of vulnerability: if humans are the main culprit, then the WEST is responsible, (position of the South) need to balance responsibility for past behavior working to a common solution for the future  Climate change is a long term condition/problems; as a result consequences of decision making is critical  Politicians have a limited lens in policy creation not 20-30 yrs.  Market: rule is short term gain not compatible with climate change  at individual level our brain doesn’t envisage a world beyond our existence  for statisticians, long term projections are fragile and weak, the models for climate change projection for long term are complex  we have a tendencies to underestimate future change  many believe technology is the solution to the problem  Global governance is a major issue of environmental change, regional framework, national level policies, int’l institutions? History:  The Montreal Protocol: a successful campaign that started with scientific evidence of the black hole in ozone layer  companies could create alternatives to CFC’s not harmful to ozone  Long saga of sustainable development; tendency to draw consequences from population growth  There is no solution to it. The argument for climate change is that it cannot be controlled without controlling population growth  Green Revolution in India allowed for millions of people to be fed  Common future and so planet as a whole is level of analysis (agenda 21)  Global awareness started to spread in the West 1992  The Rio summit, and many after it led to UN goal 2005  The stern report? Emphasized the consequences in terms of peace wrt the climate if problem was ignored  Went from development to demographic to a security issue  Problems outlined: model of economic growth: where liberalism would not lead to a win/win because resources would be limited and liberal economics (Adam Smith) would be transformed to something else?  China will not accept any int’l framework that will limit its output capacity: problem  An economic development model in free market operations need to be questioned if you are implementing climate change policies for future  Market economies play with environmental law  Resources conflict leads to civil unrest/war (Global South) (some scholars believe these countries will be losers)  Resource scarcity definitely plays a causal role in the above Future climate change problems 1. Rising Ocean levels: survival – governments are buying land in case of no solution - Bangladesh: surrounded by water 2. Habitat Destruction: palm oil destruction in Indonesia- on the verge of extinction - a million or so species are threatened from climate change (maintaining biodiversity) 3. Increased Disease Transmission: many diseases are triggered by climate temperatures, not with increased temps help contracting diseases 4. Change in Agricultural productivity: Air pollution dramatically affects agricultural production, but other places gain 5. Changes in water availability?: Damns (Climate change plus human activity TVO) In some instances water scarcity threatens survival of local population. It is a factor which will induce degradation of population leading to severe social problem 6. Changes in Ocean Chemistry - rising CO2 levels acidify water in ocean affects marine life (plankton-large fish) heavy – ve consequences for countries dependent on fisheries -  All of the above are a tragedy of the commons  Free-riders: who decide to take part in an agreement  Stern report securitized issue of environment; framework shifter from development to security meaning it is a matter of peace and war  At UN level: where its mandate is about peace and war, official justify the role of UN by saying it’s a security issue (Many countries objected UN participation)  It was a way of triggering the alarm to make sure all countries in the world will be a part of attempting to solve the problem (global coop) 1. Evolution of grand strategy paper at the national level, many countries have a securitization process regarding environment, where survival of country is at stake  This justifies emergency measures, funding to tackle or protect nation form vulnerabilities  Securitization may allow for quicker solution and more funding to do so  As a national discourse, securitization is an obstacle to international cooperation because it becomes a national framework, hence could trigger global conflict (nationalizes the issue) 2. Why
More Less

Related notes for POL380H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.