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POL380H1 (14)
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Environment & security.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL380H1
Professor
John Haines
Semester
Winter

Description
3/26/2012 3:48:00 PM March 22, 2012 Environment and Security  Widespread acknowledgement of the climate change Is a relatively new phenomenon  Local global policy, power politics in a classic sense and construction of a int’l global norm  Constructing inequality and injustice, responsibilities  Some states are spending billions to deal with climate change and preserve energy to cope  A target is not a policy, it is an easy way to get an agreement like Copenhagen  It was a great failure, lack of consensus  Complexity is due to winners and losers, even though it should affect everyone in the same way, so lack of consensus doesn’t bring states together to adopt policy  China has began to develop climate change policy  Asymmetry of vulnerability: if humans are the main culprit, then the WEST is responsible, (position of the South) need to balance responsibility for past behavior working to a common solution for the future  Climate change is a long term condition/problems; as a result consequences of decision making is critical  Politicians have a limited lens in policy creation not 20-30 yrs.  Market: rule is short term gain not compatible with climate change  at individual level our brain doesn’t envisage a world beyond our existence  for statisticians, long term projections are fragile and weak, the models for climate change projection for long term are complex  we have a tendencies to underestimate future change  many believe technology is the solution to the problem  Global governance is a major issue of environmental change, regional framework, national level policies, int’l institutions? History:  The Montreal Protocol: a successful campaign that started with scientific evidence of the black hole in ozone layer  companies could create alternatives to CFC’s not harmful to ozone  Long saga of sustainable development; tendency to draw consequences from population growth  There is no solution to it. The argument for climate change is that it cannot be controlled without controlling population growth  Green Revolution in India allowed for millions of people to be fed  Common future and so planet as a whole is level of analysis (agenda 21)  Global awareness started to spread in the West 1992  The Rio summit, and many after it led to UN goal 2005  The stern report? Emphasized the consequences in terms of peace wrt the climate if problem was ignored  Went from development to demographic to a security issue  Problems outlined: model of economic growth: where liberalism would not lead to a win/win because resources would be limited and liberal economics (Adam Smith) would be transformed to something else?  China will not accept any int’l framework that will limit its output capacity: problem  An economic development model in free market operations need to be questioned if you are implementing climate change policies for future  Market economies play with environmental law  Resources conflict leads to civil unrest/war (Global South) (some scholars believe these countries will be losers)  Resource scarcity definitely plays a causal role in the above Future climate change problems 1. Rising Ocean levels: survival – governments are buying land in case of no solution - Bangladesh: surrounded by water 2. Habitat Destruction: palm oil destruction in Indonesia- on the verge of extinction - a million or so species are threatened from climate change (maintaining biodiversity) 3. Increased Disease Transmission: many diseases are triggered by climate temperatures, not with increased temps help contracting diseases 4. Change in Agricultural productivity: Air pollution dramatically affects agricultural production, but other places gain 5. Changes in water availability?: Damns (Climate change plus human activity TVO) In some instances water scarcity threatens survival of local population. It is a factor which will induce degradation of population leading to severe social problem 6. Changes in Ocean Chemistry - rising CO2 levels acidify water in ocean affects marine life (plankton-large fish) heavy – ve consequences for countries dependent on fisheries -  All of the above are a tragedy of the commons  Free-riders: who decide to take part in an agreement  Stern report securitized issue of environment; framework shifter from development to security meaning it is a matter of peace and war  At UN level: where its mandate is about peace and war, official justify the role of UN by saying it’s a security issue (Many countries objected UN participation)  It was a way of triggering the alarm to make sure all countries in the world will be a part of attempting to solve the problem (global coop) 1. Evolution of grand strategy paper at the national level, many countries have a securitization process regarding environment, where survival of country is at stake  This justifies emergency measures, funding to tackle or protect nation form vulnerabilities  Securitization may allow for quicker solution and more funding to do so  As a national discourse, securitization is an obstacle to international cooperation because it becomes a national framework, hence could trigger global conflict (nationalizes the issue) 2. Why
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