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Political Science
Clifford Van Der Linden

SECURITZATION: A REJOINDER - A positive, not a normative theory...not meant to say what should be secured/what is worth securing, it si simply meant to say that it is a PROCESS where certain issues are seen as security issues and what happens when somthing is seen as a security issue and how the game changes - Interrogates the process by which something is designated as a security issue o Who is it who speaks this? o Who has authority to speak it? - Critical threshold for audience uptake a function of (elite) discourse CRITICAL SECURITY STUDIES - Critical security studies challenges the core propositions made by traditional Security Studies: - TRADIATION SECURITY STUDIES: o Threats arise naturally from the material capabilities of possible of possible opponents in a self-hel world of sovereign states o Object of security is the state o Security dilemma can be ameliorated but not transcended - Critical security studies o Threats and appropriate COPY FROM LECTURE THE SECURITY DILEMMA - If anarchy is what states makes of it (Wendt), then is the security dilemma a brute fact or a social construction? - What is the learned behaviour of such actors SECURITY COMMUNITIES - Deutsch et a. (1957) posit the concept of security communities, used to describe a group of people who have become integrated to such an extent that they share among themselves long-term dependable expectations of peaceful change - Can be tested empirically by the absence of systematic advance preparations for warfare in terms of significant amounts of manpower and resources AMALGAMATED VS. PLURALISTIC - Amalgamated security communities o Exists whenever this is a formal merger of two of more independent units into a single larger unit, with some type of common government after amalgamation  E.g. USA - Pluralists security communities o Retain the legal independence of separate government  E.g. EU WIR-GEFUHL - dependable expectations of peaceful change turn on mutual trust and “we-feelng”, or collective identification IMAGINED COMMUNITIES - “a nation is an imagined political community—and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign” (Anderson 1993) o Imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion o Community because, regardless of the actual inequality and exploitation that may prevail in each, the national is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship o Limited because no nation imagines itself coterminous with mankind o Sovereign because nations dream of being free, and if under God, directly so. The gage and emblem of this freedom is the sovereign state THE ORIGINS OF NATIONAL CONCIOUSNESS - Print capitalism laid the bases for national consciousness in three distinct ways o Created unified fields of exchange and communication below Latin and above the spoken vernaculars o Gave a new fixity to language, which in the long run helped to build that image of antiquity so central to the subjective idea of the nation o Print capitalism created languages of power of a kind different from the older administrative vernaculars. Those “closer” to each print-language dominated its final form DEVELOPMENT OF SECURITY COMMUNITIES Tier One (precipitating conditions) - Change in technology, gemography, economics, the environment - Developmenent of new interpretation of social reality - External threats Tier Two; factors conducive to the development of mutual trust and collective identity - Structure o Power o Knowledge - Process o Transactions o Organizations o Social learning Tier Three; necessary conditions of dependable expectations of peaceful change - Mutual trust - Collective identity D
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