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Political Science
Clifford Van Der Linden

HUMAN SECURITY: REFERENCETS, THREATS, AND VALUES REDEFINING THE REFERENT - Human security is marked predominately by a decisive shift in the referent object from the state to societies, groups and individuals - Growing emphasis on human dignity EMERGING DIMESNSIONS OF SECURITY NEW DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN SECURITY - Conceptual consolidation traced to 1994 UNDP Human Development Report - Established seven pillars of human security: o Economic security (freedom from poverty) o Food security (access to food) o Health security (access to health care and protection from diseases) o Environmental security (protection from such dangers as environmental pollution and depletion) o Personal security (physical safety from such things as torture, war, criminal attacks, domestic violence, drug use, suicide, and even traffic accidents) o Community security (survival of traditional cultures and ethnic groups as well as the physical security of these groups) o Political security (enjoyment of civil and political rights, and freedom from political oppression) FREEDOM FROM FEAR - Protection from sudden and hurtful disruptions in the patterns of daily life - Focus on prevention of direct physical violence - Considered a “narrow” conception of human security FREEDOM FROM WANT - safety from chronic threats such as hunger, disease and repression - focus on prevention of structural violence - considered a “broad” conception of human security HUMAN SECURITY VS. DEVELOPMENT - whereas development is focused on achieving equitable growth and sustainability, human security goes further to address the “conditions that menace survival, the continuation of daily life and the dignity of human beings” -- Human Security Now (2003) pg 4 - Human development is a process of widening the range of people’s choices whereas human security means that people can exercise these choices safely and freely—and that they can be relatively confiden
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