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Lecture 5

POL410H1 Lecture 5.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL410H1
Professor
Guthrie
Semester
Summer

Description
POL410H1 Lecture 5 Bates- state run marketing boards (co-ops) and monopsonies, distort the market Problem with Neoliberalism, doesn’t explain outcomes Richer farmers who are able to afford storage systems (fridges) and buy from the local farmers and hold on to them. Bates doesn’t explain all outcomes on the ground -farmers get payments at the beginning and end of harvest by the marketing boards -this gives them some stability because if their crops fail they still have the 1 payment st -in addition because they receive money at the beginning (1 payment) which helps them with their costs because they haven’t been paid since the last harvest Neoliberals – turn power away from the authority, decentralize things FROM GLOBAL TO LOCAL Resources were differently challenged through local leaders based on their power Boone and herring give us a lot of the material to deal with decentralization Micro level approaches Focus on local forces Major themes: Focus on state society relations, struggle between state and rural interests -Boone argues that literature up to this point has focused on state central factors, state exploiting farmers, she describes the depiction of the state as a predatory leviathan. -against view of state exploitation and that the state plays the central role in shaping -argues that rural politics aid understanding, imposes critique on macro theories -understanding the rural power in the state is necessary Crooke also touches on state society relations -talks about the importance of state society relations in the sense of local power relations -talks about an elite capture of local power structures -patronage politics and the importance these play Snyder -villagers negotiations with the state had shifted -there is more active political participation on the ground in Tanzania, demands are being made by the people to the state Decentralization: Downsizing in government and institutions -Boone doesn’t agree that it necessarily powers local citizens, the root of the problem is that these reforms didn’t include nuanced analyses of the rural settings -no consideration of variation, one size fits all is not the case Crooke looks at decentralization as a strategy for poverty reduction -argues that the impact of poverty is determined by local central relations -commitment is necessary by the central authorities, needs to be in order to -decentralization doesn’t equal democracy, finds in his cases that certain practices like elections may be implemented but their not necessarily fair -lack of accountability and accountability mechanisms -African states try to appear democratic in order to appease their donors Snyder -appears to support decentralization -played a role in extending democracy to local levels Agency of the local actors Boone argues that rural actors have bargaining power that is important and influential to decisions made by states Herring he brings up a case that farmers in Indian state resisted the regulation of agriculture, they raised ethical standards and human standards -switched from feudal agrarian system to a heavily regulated market economy -drew on Polanyi -driving force behind local actors were social forces, social norms do play a role, -idea of moral economy comes up, societies that are trying to defeat domination by the market Snyder on agency is the most for it -discusses change of Tanzanians engaging with the state, demand democratic principles in building schools in their city -she’s a bit optimistic, makes grand claims Biggest strength of these approaches is that they help explain variation which other theories ignore or push away. This is seen most in Boone’s article. She looks at the very different outcomes, she argues that local politics and power relations between local and state explain for these variations. She argues that variation do aid in building strategies of the state. Proposes a model page 37. Institutional choice model, specifies rural interests…addresses local level configurations of power, adds to the logic of constraint and incentive. Another strength is that her theory is generalized it’s not just applicable to Africa. Good the explain power dynamics. Limitations
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