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Lecture

IDSB02 Lecture 2.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL469H1
Professor
M.Isaac
Semester
Winter

Description
IDSB02- Development and the Environment th Tuesday January 17 /2012  Leslie Campbell TA: Office Hours Thursdays 1-2 pm in SW517  Prof. Issac Tuesday 12-2 in SW517  Development of Development: (major overview)  What is development? It is an evolving term, started as economic growth, then continued to human development, and arrived at sustainable development  Economic development: rose out of WW2 based on capital and growth with GDP as indicator of development. As an opposition to communism; push for economic growth.  Capabilities approach: Amartya Sen based approach to economics; development should not just be about rising income levels but rather individual substantive freedoms, there was 5 basic freedoms which allow people to pursue that which they have cause to value: HERE  The limits to Growth (1972): consequence of a rapidly growing world pop. And finite resource supply . five variables were discussed; world pop., industrialization, pollution, food production and HERE  Sustainable development: Brundtland commission 1987 UN report “Our common Future”, conservation and development could be compatible. Environmental degradation undermines economic development. There were three main goals; economic growth, environmental protection and health and happiness of people.  Can you have environmental protection with economic growth?*  Sachs (1993) says sustainable development has attracted such a large following because; capitalism and ecology no longer at opposition, the limits to growth become...HERE  Lee paper*: looks at macro level trade-offs, the Kuznet curve first proposed for economics then brought into environment. Why does the curve hold for environmental problems?  There are three reasons why the three inversed U relationship may occur; sustainability needs money to be put in to monitor, the country’s economic plan shift from small scale production(agrarian) to manufacturing to service based, and the increase of income increases population and typically there is a decrease in rate of population growth as income continues to grow  Lee Paper: EX1: urban air contamination, yes this worked. Why? Because measurement easy and area is limited and defined. EX2: deforestation, there is major inconsistence. Spatial dimensions are constantly changing so hard to monitor and measurements of multiple factors are flawed.  Author suggests concept: land sparring- if you deforest in one area then you can build a park in another; very difficult to monitor. If you use green technology on one area of agricultural land like deforest, use pesticides and irrigation (degrade it) you can use another plot of land to conserve (build a park…)  Where is the turning point of the E.K.C.? What causes the turning point? What is the role of the state, business, individuals, international economic integration etc. in accelerating the turning point?  Progress?: Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going? First two answered by anthropology and the last question we try to answer.  Culture: the whole of any society’s knowledge, beliefs and practices  Civilizations: a type of culture  Collapse of civilizations: represent the black boxes of history and use them to understand what went wrong  The progress trap: How did we turn our ecology into our economies?  Crop domestication happened independently in 4 regions of the world ~ 10kya  Animal domestication began around the world 10-8kya  Farmers began to outnumber hunter and gatherers  Malthusian thesis – population grows until it hi
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