IDSB02- Development and the Environment
Tuesday January 17 /2012
Leslie Campbell TA: Office Hours Thursdays 1-2 pm in SW517
Prof. Issac Tuesday 12-2 in SW517
Development of Development: (major overview)
What is development? It is an evolving term, started as economic growth, then continued to human
development, and arrived at sustainable development
Economic development: rose out of WW2 based on capital and growth with GDP as indicator of
development. As an opposition to communism; push for economic growth.
Capabilities approach: Amartya Sen based approach to economics; development should not just be
about rising income levels but rather individual substantive freedoms, there was 5 basic freedoms
which allow people to pursue that which they have cause to value: HERE
The limits to Growth (1972): consequence of a rapidly growing world pop. And finite resource supply
. five variables were discussed; world pop., industrialization, pollution, food production and HERE
Sustainable development: Brundtland commission 1987 UN report “Our common Future”,
conservation and development could be compatible. Environmental degradation undermines
economic development. There were three main goals; economic growth, environmental protection
and health and happiness of people.
Can you have environmental protection with economic growth?*
Sachs (1993) says sustainable development has attracted such a large following because; capitalism
and ecology no longer at opposition, the limits to growth become...HERE
Lee paper*: looks at macro level trade-offs, the Kuznet curve first proposed for economics then
brought into environment. Why does the curve hold for environmental problems?
There are three reasons why the three inversed U relationship may occur; sustainability needs
money to be put in to monitor, the country’s economic plan shift from small scale
production(agrarian) to manufacturing to service based, and the increase of income increases
population and typically there is a decrease in rate of population growth as income continues to
Lee Paper: EX1: urban air contamination, yes this worked. Why? Because measurement easy and
area is limited and defined.
EX2: deforestation, there is major inconsistence. Spatial dimensions are constantly changing so hard
to monitor and measurements of multiple factors are flawed.
Author suggests concept: land sparring- if you deforest in one area then you can build a park in
another; very difficult to monitor. If you use green technology on one area of agricultural land like
deforest, use pesticides and irrigation (degrade it) you can use another plot of land to conserve
(build a park…)
Where is the turning point of the E.K.C.? What causes the turning point? What is the role of the
state, business, individuals, international economic integration etc. in accelerating the turning
point? Progress?: Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going? First two answered by
anthropology and the last question we try to answer.
Culture: the whole of any society’s knowledge, beliefs and practices
Civilizations: a type of culture
Collapse of civilizations: represent the black boxes of history and use them to understand what went
The progress trap: How did we turn our ecology into our economies?
Crop domestication happened independently in 4 regions of the world ~ 10kya
Animal domestication began around the world 10-8kya
Farmers began to outnumber hunter and gatherers
Malthusian thesis – population grows until it hi