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Lecture 8

IDSB02 lecture 8.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

IDSB02Development and the Environment thMarch 6 2012 Lecture 8Article Skole et alTropical deforestation has large influence on hydrology climate and biogeochemical cyclesBut difficult to understandwhyLack of accurate measurement geographic extent and spatial patternsHe proposes 2 methods for accurate measures of regional scale patternsRemote sensingLand census dataHowever economic and institutional patternsfactors need to be understood For exampleSettlementsOil prices of the 70s banks wanted to lend moneybrazil needed capital to invest in economic developmentAgricultural modernizationworld bankcrop creditsbut only to specific crops for export little emphasis on food cropsdeclining food security What are the alternative solutions to deforestationLand reformProtection and conservationClearly defined natural parksImproved techniquessilvicutureExtractive reservesDeemphasize ranchingNonTimber forest products NTF productsNo clear definition but is definitely not timberProducts benefits or services comes from forests or treesBerries Carbon creditsHistory of forests dominated by timberwhyWhy do we think of forests in terms of timber Because it is the first thingbiggest thing one sees Very important NTFPs are substituted rubber gums or in plantations oil palm cocoaMarginalizations of indigenous peoples Only recently do we have ideas of nature reserves that can coexist with native peoplesAre NTFs important Tool for developmentPotential income higher and more sustainableConservation by commercialization hypothesis Typically maintaining NTFPs means maintaining ecological integrity Increased organization of markets will eliminate middle menimprove rural livelihoods
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