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IDSB02 week 12.docx

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Political Science

IDSB02- Development and the Environment rd April 3 2011 – Week 12  Exam: cumulative but more weighted on the second half  Multiple choice/TF/ short answer/long answer – MUCH longer for the final compared to midterm (x2) – breakdown of marks relative to the midterm  What is development o An evolving term o Economic growth o Human development: quality of life, life expectancy and literacy- social, political, psychological etc.  Rapa Nui  Sumer  Rome  Mayan o Egypt o China  Kuznet curve, sustainability, soil, climate, water, AET PET of these climates  Won’t ask definition of soil etc. but will need to apply this to final  What do we know so far about tropical rainforests?  Where are they located?  And what do they grow on?  Soils= low fertility, highly weathered, acidic, low organic matter  Climate = ITCZ, unstable zone with high precipitation  AET=PET  Why so much biodiversity in the rainforests?  Why is biodiversity so important?  Ethics  Stability  Food security  Human health  Financial  Why does deforestation occur?  Proximate causes  Conversion of land to agriculture etc.  Ultimate causes  Population growth  Fiscal policy  War and civil unrest etc.  Brazil as an example  Skole et. Al  Tropical deforestation has a large influence on hydrology, climate patterns etc. Alternatives to deforestation and wood products?  Non-timber forest products  No clear definition but not wood!  Products benefits and services may come  Semi-Arid environment  Savanna  Movement  Proximate and Ultimate causes of degradation in semi-arid environments  What was going on?  Colonial Eurocentric narrative o Desertification is happening  Derived from the experiences in the dust bowl  Reynolds et al. 07  Dryland syndrome  Dryland development paradigm  Defined desertification  Convention to combat desertification  Drylands and development – what are the development approaches?  What are the constraints to sustainable livlihoods in drylands? And how have people adapted to these constraints?  Maintainance of traditional lifestyles  Community based resource management – Sen’s freedoms *** exam Q  Is this a good idea  Political  Economic  Social  Transparency  Protective  Agriculture for development  Plant nutrition – fertility CEC  Previous fallow system – now fertilizers because increased population growth and demand  Conventional agriculture  Green revolution – hybrid technology, irrigation, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, GMO  High yielding varieties  Impacts of conventional/intensive agriculture – environmental limits?  Desertification  Soil erosion  Pollution  Salinization  Biodiversity, Etc.  Dichotomy of conventional and organic foods  Vitousek et al  In sub Saharan Africa the initial challenge
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